Timeline: shale gas in the UK
(Redirected from Timeline: fracking in the UK)
- 1 2010
- 2 2011
- 3 2012
- 4 2013
- 5 2014
- 6 2015
- 7 2016
- 8 2017
- 9 2018
- 10 Notes
- April: West Sussex Country Council grants planning permission at Cuadrilla's Balcombe (West Sussex) site. It previously had decided the company did not need an Environmental Impact Assessment at the site.
- August: Cuadrilla begins drilling at Preese Hall (Lancashire)
- September: Cuadrilla begins initial construction at Balcombe
- 1 January: A report commissioned by the Cooperative says fracking poses 'significant potential risks to human health and the environment' in the UK, including 'on drinking water quality and/or surface waters/wetland habitats'. 
- April: First tremor detected at Preese Hall - 2.3 on Richter scale
- May: Second tremor Preece Hall - 1.5 on Richter scale. Drilling suspended while DECC commissions report to examine link between fracking and seismic activity. 
- 23 May: A report by the Energy and Climate Change Select Committee says a moratorium on fracking in the UK is unnecessary, and any environmental and public health risks should be easily mitigated through regulations.
- 16 September: An anti-fracking activist group called Camp Frack occupy a field near Southport, outside the Lancashire village of Banks, in protest against the UK's first shale gas wells. 
- 2 November: In a damning development for the UK fracking industry, a report commissioned by Cuadrilla says the company's own fracking operations at Banks, near Merseyside, were the 'probable' cause of 50 separate earthquake tremors in the Blackpool area. The company stopped fracking at the site while the government reviewed the implications of the report. Anti-fracking campaigners reacted in protest. 
- December: Cuadrilla says it has a DECC license and local planning permission for exploratory drilling in Balcombe, but not firm plans to drill.
- April:-Report finds that fracking did cause two minor earthquakes at Preese Hall. Recommendations are made to prevent it happening again.
- 6 July: Three surveys carried out between April and June found that only 39-45 per cent of respondents knew what shale gas was. Nearly 53 per cent were in favour of fracking, with a further 20 per cent saying they did not know. 
- 9 December: In an article in The Telegraph, Boris Johnson says that Britain 'should get fracking right away' and the green lobby's opposition to shale gas production is 'ludicrous'. 
- 13 December: In a major decision, the government lifts a moratorium on fracking, allowing Cuadrilla to resume its gas production in Blackpool, despite wide public concern. The move gave the go-ahead for future fracking planning applications. 
- March: Chancellor George Osborne offers tax breaks for shale gas operators.
- 1 April: CEO of Cuadrilla Francis Egan says shale gas could be supplying electricity to homes in Britain by 2016. 
- 3 May: Cabinet secretary Jeremy Heywood hosts a dinner with fracking company representatives, including Francis Egan, Ken Cronin and Calum MacLean, to 'discuss the potential for UK shale gas'. 
- May: Institute of Directors highlights the need for the industry to secure a ‘social license to frack’. Publishes the report 'Getting shale gas working', which was sponsored by Cuadrilla Resources
- 11 August: Writing in The Telegraph, PM David Cameron says the UK 'cannot afford to miss out on fracking'. 
- 16 August: Amid heavy protests from resident groups, Cuadrilla announces it will scale back exploratory drilling in Balcombe, West Sussex. The company also says however that it will resume operations once the protests have passed.  Arrests of protestors blocking access to the Balcombe site include Greens MP Caroline Lucas. Policing costs estimated to rise to £3.7million for the site.
- 4 October: Cuadrilla withdraws from fracking at its site in Blackpool, saying efforts would be better spent in other sites in Lancashire. 
- 17 December: The government publishes a 'regulatory roadmap' setting out the permits developers need before exploration drilling for shale gas. Energy minister Michael Fallon said: 'today marks the next step in unlocking the potential of shale gas in our energy mix.' 
- 13: Prime minister David Cameron announces that councils will receive 100 per cent of any tax revenue collected from local fracking schemes. Campaigners and MPs criticise the move, saying that this would give councils contradictory interests.
- 14: The UK blocks European Union proposals to set legally binding environmental regulations on the shale gas industry across the continent.
- 21: Energy minister Michael Fallon says the government will 'step up the pace of shale gas exploration', forecasting 20-40 exploratory wells will be drilled within two to three years. Fallon was giving evidence to the House of Lords economic affairs committee as part of an inquiry on the UK's energy policy of shale gas and oil.  On 28 January at the same inquiry, the environment secretary Owen Paterson says there is huge economic potential for shale gas in the UK, and that public fears about fracking had been exaggerated. 
- 24: In a letter to Balcombe's residents, Cuadrilla chief executive Francis Egan says his company will not frack at a nearby drill site at Lower Stumble, despite submitting a new planning application to Wessex County Council.
- 4: Cuadrilla announces it will apply to drill and frack eight wells at Roseacre Wood and at Preston New Road in Lancashire.
- 19: A report by the consulting group Poyry says UK's 'nascent shale gas industry will die without an overhaul of the planning system' , which could deter future investment. 
- 20: Chancellor of the exchequer George Osborne calls on environmentalists to drop their 'ideological' opposition to shale gas and nuclear power and says climate change should be addressed in 'as cheap a possible way"'. 
- 13: A report by leading UK wildlife and countryside organisations says current regulations on fracking are not fit for purpose and calls for a permanent fracking ban in all protected areas. 
- 21: Balcombe Parish Council submits a formal objection to Cuadrilla’s planning application to flow test its exploration oil well, after a ballot shows 60 per cent of local residents were against its approval. 
- 23: In a shocking revelation, chair of the Environment Agency Lord Smith offered Cuadrilla chairman and the government's lead non-executive director, Lord Browne, a reduction in the consultation time for a permit application by the company, at a meeting organised by UK environment secretary Owen Paterson. Smith also agreed to intervene with West Sussex County Council on Cuadrilla’s planning application at Balcombe and identify further risks to the company’s plans. Green party MP Caroline Lucas says the disclosures show a conflict of interest between government and commercial positions. 
- 24: Green party MP Caroline Lucas faces trial for breaching section 14 of the Public Order Act and wilful obstruction of a highway outside the Cuadrilla site in Balcombe, at a protest event on 19 August 2013. 
- 15: The fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment on Climate Change advocates replacing coal energy with shale gas in the short-medium term to lower carbon emissions. 
- 17: Green party MP Caroline Lucas is acquitted of all charges arising from last year’s anti-fracking protests at Balcombe. Four other protesters were also cleared. 
- 29: In a major development, West Sussex county council approves Cuadrilla's planning application to test oil extraction in Balcombe. The announcement is condemned by anti-fracking campaigners and local residents.
- 9: In a deal worth £120 million, IGas buys rival shale gas company Dart Energy to become Britain's biggest shale gas explorer. 
- 23: The government publishes plans to change trespass laws, making it easier for fracking companies to negotiate rights of access, and a new compensation scheme for people affected by shale gas developments.  A YouGov survey finds 74 per cent of people oppose the move. 
- 4: The Queen's speech, which sets out the broad legislative programme for the coming year, features proposals to allow fracking companies to drill under land without homeowners' permission. 
- 13: A Balcombe residents’ group issues legal proceedings in the High Court against Cuadrilla’s planning permission for drilling in the village. West Sussex County Council and Cuadrilla are given until July to respond.
- 21: A report by the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health says UK regulations on the fracking industry are inadequate to prevent adverse affects to public health and the environment. 
- 22: In a landmark decision, West Sussex County Council votes against approving Celtique Energie’s application to drill exploratory oil wells between Kirdford and Wisborough Green. Local residents and campaigners celebrate the refusal - it is also the first time a council has rejected a shale planning application.
- 28: The Department of Energy and Climate Change publish an official consultation on the environmental impact of fracking. The report shows a substantial majority of bodies consulted were against licensing fracking schemes.  Despite the findings, ministers announce that planning rules will change to allow fracking in national parks and areas of outstanding natural beauty in "exceptional circumstances". 
- 1: A legal challenge to overturn Cuadrilla's planning permission for test drilling in Balcombe is granted by the High Court. On 21 August, the date for a judicial review is set for 6 and 7 November.
- 10: The government is criticised by MPs and campaigners for censoring a report into the impact of shale gas on rural economies. 
- 25: The Labour Party table a series of amendments to a proposed infrastructure bill in the House of Lords to strengthen regulations on fracking. 
- 3: Officers from the South Downs National Park say Celtique Energie should not be given permission to drill an exploratory oil well at Fernhurst in West Sussex.  On 11 September, the planning committee formally rejects the application.  The decision is celebrated by anti-fracking campaigners.
- 19: Following many complaints, the Environment Agency instructs Rathlin Energy to stop the smell coming from its exploratory oil and gas well at West Newton in the Yorkshire Wolds. 
- 26: The government changes trespass laws to allow underground access to oil and gas drilling companies. The decision goes against over 40,000 responses to a Department of Energy and Climate Change consultation, of which more than 99 per cent opposed the proposals. 
- 3: The government appoints head of the UK Energy Research Centre and fracking supporter Professor John Loughhead as the new Chief Scientific Advisor to the Department of Energy and Climate Change.  John Manzoni, a former oil man, is also appointed as the first chief executive of the civil service. 
- 15: Celtique Energie says it will appeal against the decision by West Sussex County Council to refuse planning permission for an exploration well near the villages of Kirdford and Wisborough Green. The decision is condemned by local MP Nick Herbert.
- 11: The government debates plans to create a sovereign wealth fund with the receipts of shale gas revenue. 
- 12: A new report by the Overseas Development Institute says the UK is failing on its promise to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and is still providing £1.2 billion annually to support oil, coal and gas. 
- 24: Lancashire County Council announces a new public consultation on Cuadrilla’s two planning applications for exploratory gas wells in the Fylde. The Environment Agency (EA) says it is 'minded to grant' the company its permits. 
- 3: The government goes ahead with plans for a shale gas wealth fund. Anti-fracking campaigners call the move premature. 
- 5: After a a two day hearing, Balcombe's anti-fracking group loses their High Court bid to overturn the planning permission granted to Cuadrilla for oil and gas exploration in Balcombe, West Sussex village. 
- 8: Labour MPs table amendments to the Infrastructure Bill calling for more environmental regulations on fracking. 
- 21: Lancashire County Council (LCC) planners recommend refusal of Cuadrilla's fracking application.
- 26: The Environmental Audit Committee says fracking is inconsistent with the UK’s efforts on climate change.
- 26: George Osborne requests cabinet ministers intervene in local planning to fast track fracking as a 'personal priority'. 
- 26: MPs vote against amendments to the Infrastructure Bill proposing tougher regulations and a moratorium on fracking, but agree on Labour proposals for 13 new conditions to be met before shale gas extraction can take place.
- 28: The Scottish government announces a moratorium on fracking planning permissions. 
- 6: Cuadrilla receives permits for fracking at Roseacre Wood from the Environment Agency, ignoring the recommendation against approval by Lancashire County Council (LCC) planning committee. 
- 9: House of Lords revises amendment to the Infrastructure Bill to remove Labour's proposed pre-conditions on fracking exploration. . The revised amendment then passed in parliament on 12 February. 
- 25: LCC’s development control committee refuse permission to Cuadrilla for shale gas testing at Singleton in the Fylde.
- 5: INEOS buys IGas' north-west shale gas assets, and becomes third UK’s third biggest shale gas licence holder. 
- 17: Neath Port Talbot council permit UK Methane Ltd to drill an exploratory borehole for coal bed methane and shale gas at the Afan Valley beauty spot, the first such application to be approved in Wales. 
- 18: Dart Energy challenge plans for a public inquiry into its fracking application at Dudleston Heath, near Ellesmere. 
- 26: The government calls upon local councils to not 'gold-plate' human rights law when evicting protest camps. 
- 28: The government rejects the need for a moratorium on fracking to not exceed the UK’s carbon budget, disregarding the advice of the Environmental Audit Committee. 
- 23: Over a quarter of general election candidates sign frack-free pledge. 
- 28: UK Oil and Gas Investments applies for an extension to its drilling licence at Horse Hill Well, Surrey. 
- 8: IGas chief executive Andrew Austin resigns following the official completion of the company's landmark acquisition of Dart Energy, announced in late 2014.
- 11: Following the Conservative Party’s general election victory on 8 May, prime minister David Cameron appoints Amber Rudd as energy and climate change secretary, Liz Truss as secretary for environment, food and rural affairs and Greg Clark as communities and local government secretary. 
- 4: East Yorkshire council approves Rathlin Energy’s application for two exploratory wells at West Newton.
- 11: The government announces it will standardise the environmental requirements fracking companies must meet to explore for shale gas. Anti-fracking campaigners criticise the plans, which they say will lessen the importance of local advisers and relax environmental scrutiny in the early stages of shale gas developments. 
- 25: In a breakthrough decision, Lancashire County Council (LCC) rejects Cuadrilla's fracking application at Roseacre Wood. 
- 1: After much delay, the government releases Defra's full report on the impact of fracking on rural economies.  It previously resisted the report's release, claiming it was incomplete and against the public interest, but was forced to publish after an appeal to the Information Commissioner. The report warns of significant risks to human health, house prices, tourism and farming.  It is later revealed in November 2016 that the report's release was deliberately delayed until after the decisions on Cuadrilla’s shale gas applications. 
- 14: The All-Party Parliamentary Group on Unconventional Oil and Gas discuss the implications of the new government for the UK shale industry and future regulation of the sector. Speakers include Tony Carruthers, commercial director at Cuadrilla.
- 16: The Task Force on Shale Gas calls for for greater safety and transparency measures on fracking, as well as 'full disclosure' of all chemicals to be used by the industry, and independent monitoring of the fracking process. 
- 23: The Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal, an international opinion tribunal, grants a trial hearing on how fracking breaches human rights. 
- 8: Europa wins an appeal against Surrey County Council to carry out exploratory drilling in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty near Leith Hill. 
- 13: In a significant policy intervention, the government announces new “fast-track” measures to remove the decision making power of local authorities on fracking planning applications. 
- 18: The government releases details mapping where new licences to explore for oil and gas have been awarded across England, 59 of which fall in wildlife protection sites. 
- 19: The government reveals proposals that drilling of seismic monitoring boreholes be exempt from application for planning permission. 
- 16: The Task Force on Shale Gas advocates fracking as an alternative to coal while the UK transitions to renewables, but green campaigners insist pursuing fracking will increase the UK's net fossil fuel use. 
- 16: The local government secretary Greg Clark announces plans for government to commandeer decision-making power on shale gas appeals from “underperforming” local councils. 
- 16: The RSPB warns nearly 300 protected wildlife areas across England could be harmed by new fracking licences. 
- 28: Northern Ireland’s environment minister Mark H Durkan disavows fracking, but does not impose a moratorium or permanent ban. 
- 9: Ryedale District Council vote for a five year moratorium on fracking, although the final decision for fracking applications rests with North Yorkshire County Council. 
- 22: A High Court judge grants a judicial review of the decision by Lancashire County Council to approve Cuadrilla’s seismic monitoring scheme at Roseacre Wood. 
- 26: Energy minister Andrea Leadsom, addressed the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Unconventional Oil and Gas on the government’s priorities for UK shale. 
*4: The government introduces a fracking planning licence condition which bans any exploration in protected wildlife areas or designated landscapes. 
- 17: At least 16 business leaders included in a letter co-ordinated by the North West Energy Task Force urging Lancashire County Council (LCC) to approve Cuadrilla’s planning applications insist their signatures were used without consent and demand they be removed. 
- 25: The government cancels a £1 billion competition for carbon capture and storage technology, days ahead of a UN climate summit in Paris, thereby breaking a Conservative manifesto pledge.  On 15 December, the Task Force on Shale Gas criticised the move for damaging the long term viability of shale gas production. 
- 26: In a controversial move, the task of determining Cuadrilla’s appeals against the refusal of planning permission for fracking at two sites in Lancashire is passed to secretary of state for communities and local government Greg Clark. The move is hotly contested by Lancashire County Council. 
- 15: The Task Force on Shale Gas releases its final report, recommending further exploratory drilling in order to accurately assess how much shale gas is recoverable. Greenpeace criticises the report, released only days after the Paris Agreement on climate change. 
- 16: In a controversial vote, MPs approve the government’s Draft Onshore Hydraulic Fracturing (Protected Areas) Regulations, allowing fracking under national parks. 
- 17: The Oil and Gas Authority awards 93 new fracking licences, 21 of which were allocated to INEOS. 
- 4: Lancashire County Council (LCC) ask the government to reverse their decision to give Greg Clark the final say in determining planning applications on fracking. On 28 January, the government refuses LCC's request. 
- 8: Senior INEOS executive, Tom Pickering says his company is focusing efforts in shale gas exploration away from Scotland, towards Cheshire and other areas of England. 
- 9: An investigation by Spinwatch and The Independent reveals property damage caused by fracking, including water contamination or polluted water from fracking sites being spread during a flood, will not be covered by insurance. 
- 12: Bailiffs evict an anti-fracking protest camp at the IGas Duttons Lane site near Chester. More than 175 officers from four police forces were involved, and nine arrests.
- 18: MP for Thirsk and Malton, Kevin Hollinrake, resigns as vice chair of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Unconventional Oil and Gas, following pressure from his constituents. He is replaced on February 5 by David Mowat, Conservative MP for Warrington South. At the same time, Kevin Hollinrake also announces he is setting up a new All-Party Parliamentary Group on Shale Gas Regulation and Planning, of which he will be chairman. 
- 19: Nottinghamshire County Council approves IGas’s application for up to 12 groundwater monitoring boreholes at a proposed shale gas site to the north-east of Misson in Bassetlaw, despite 314 public objections against it. 
- 31: A leaked government letter from July 2015, signed by energy secretary Amber Rudd , local government secretary Greg Clark, and environment secretary Liz Truss, reveals proposals to take decisions for fracking wells away from local councils were tabled shortly after Lancashire County Council refused permission to Cuadrilla to frack wells in the Fylde. Campaigners say the letter shows the government conspiring with fracking companies to take power away from local councils and communities. 
- 5: IGas abandons plans to drill for coalbed methane at Upton near Chester, where a protest camp was previously evicted at a cost of £200,000 to Cheshire Police. On 8 February the Police and Crime Commissioner for Cheshire demands IGas pay these costs back. In March, IGas says that it will not pay. 
- 9: High-profile inquiry begins on the planning appeals by Cuadrilla against Lancashire County Council (LCC)’s refusal of its applications to drill up to eight fracking wells, and seismic monitoring plans, across sites at Preston New Road and Roseacre Wood.
- 23: The Planning Inspectorate grants permission to Cuadrilla for site restoration and monitoring at the Grange Hill exploration site near Singleton in Lancashire, despite LCC refusing permission in May 2015.
- 15: Ryedale District Council votes against Third Energy fracking near the village of Kirby Misperton, and recommends North Yorkshire County Council opposes fracking at the existing KM8 well.
- 16: Closing day of the public inquiry into Cuadrilla's appeal against Lancashire County Council to drill up to eight fracking wells and seismic monitoring plans, across sites at Preston New Road and Roseacre Wood.  The determination of the inquiry will be announced on 6 October.
- 23: Coastal Oil and Gas appeals its refused application for an exploratory test well at Hendre Farm, Llanharan.
- 26: Welsh natural resources minister Carl Sargeant extends Wales' moratorium on unconventional gas and oil developments to underground coal gasification. 
- 30: Surrey Council approves extending IGas oil and gas production sites near Bletchingley Central. 
- 6: Regulations on fracking well depths come into force. 
- 11: Third Energy is granted environmental permit for the KM8 shale gas well at Kirby Misperton, North Yorkshire. 
- 20: Minister of state at the department of energy and climate change, Andrea Leadsom, is speaker at the first meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Shale Gas Regulation and Planning. 
- 27: The Energy and Climate Change Select Committee warns the UK will miss its 2030 carbon reduction targets without regulating gas-fired power stations.
- 28: Public support for fracking in the UK falls to an all-time low according to a government poll. Most notably, just 19 per cent of people backed fracking while support for renewables surged to 81 per cent in the Department of Energy and Climate Change's long running public attitude tracker poll.
- 5: INEOS sets out summer timetable for seismic surveying and monitoring across England.
- 18: Francis Egan, the head of Cuadrilla, urges government to fight councils on planning application delays.
- 23: In a landmark decision, North Yorkshire County Council approve Third Energy's application to explore for shale at Kirby Misperton in Ryedale, despite overwhelming local opposition.
- 27: UK Oil and Gas Investments will invest £4 million in exploratory fracking in the Weald Basin, Southern England. 
- 1: The Scottish Parliament votes for a ban on fracking.
- 6: Northern Ireland legislates for mandatory planning applications for unconventional oil and gas exploration sites.
- 13: UK Oil and Gas Investments pays Celtique Energie and Magellan £3.5 million for an exploration licence in West Sussex .
- 7: The Committee on Climate Change calls for stronger regulations on shale gas development so that the UK does not exceed its carbon budget.
- 8: IGas's application for an exploration well at Tinker Lane in Bassetlaw, north Nottinghamshire, is rejected by local planning committee. 
- 13: Surrey County Council approves IGas plans to convert a shale gas exploration site near Guildford to gas production.
- 14: Following the UK’s referendum vote to leave the EU on 24 June, the resignation of David Cameron, and Theresa May’s victory in a Conservative Party leadership contest and subsequent assumption as the new prime minister on 13 July, Andrea Leadsom is appointed environment secretary, Sajid Javid becomes communities and local government secretary, and Greg Clark is appointed secretary for business, energy and industrial strategy (BEIS).  In a widely condemned move, Theresa May abolishes the department of energy and climate change. The previous brief of the department for energy and climate change integrates into BEIS. 
- 19: Director of INEOS Tom Crotty announces plans to apply for over 30 fracking planning applications within the next 6 months, with the expectation of extracting gas in about 18 months. 
- 7: New UK prime minister Theresa May proposes compensating people affected by fracking with cash payments. Green campaigners accuse her of attempting to bribe individual residents to pass fracking applications. 
- 6: In a House of Lords hearing, new business, energy and industrial strategy minister Baroness Neville-Rolfe refuses to disclose what level of carbon emissions from fracking wells is considered acceptable by the government.
- 7: At a meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Shale Gas Regulation and Planning, Tom Pickering of INEOS, David Robottom of Third Energy and John Blaymires of IGas each refuse to offer an estimate on the upper limit number of fracking sites in exploration licence blocks. 
- 13: At a meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Unconventional Oil and Gas, veteran US shale geologist and associate of INEOS warns that the Bowland Basin in Lancashire, where Cuadrilla has applied to frack, does not offer promising gas production prospects due to its complex basin structure. 
- 14: South Western Energy announces it will not pursue four of its awarded licences to explore for shale gas in the Forest of Dean and Wiltshire. 
- 26: Shadow energy and climate change secretary Barry Gardiner says a future Labour government will implement a nationwide ban on fracking. Reaction is mixed: Green party MP Caroline Lucas and campaigners say the move is welcome by the public, while the GMB union, Cuadrilla and former shadow energy secretary Caroline Flint call the decision short sighted.
- 27: Nottinghamshire County Council planning officers say IGas's application to drill two exploratory wells at Springs Road, Misson, should go ahead. The decision to approve the application will be taken on 5 October by the council's planning committee. The site is a former cold war missile launch base.
- 27: First ever shipment of shale gas from the US arrives at INEOS' Grangemouth plant in Scotland. 
- 6: In a landmark decision, communities secretary Sajid Javid overturns the refusal by Lancashire county council of Cuadrilla's fracking application, allowing for drilling to start at Preston New Road next year. Outraged local resident groups vow to continue their opposition; the fracking industry welcomes decision. Approval for fracking at Cuadrilla's Rosacre Wood site remains undetermined. 
- 6: The Scottish government announces a ban on underground coal gasification techniques. 
- 13: A long running poll shows public support for fracking has fallen to an all-time low in Britain.  A second government led survey released on the 27th shows the same result. 
- 17: UK Oil & Gas Investments submit plans to Surrey County Council for two new wells and extended exploration at the Horse Hill oil site near Gatwick. 
- 19: The Preston New Road Action Group, a community group in Lancashire, launches a legal challenge against the government's decision to overrule Lancashire County Council’s refusal of planning permission for fracking in Fylde, Lancashire.  A separate challenged is later issued against the government's decision to re-open the inquiry into fracking at Roseacre Wood.  A third challenge is issued in December by a campaigner for climate action. 
- 24: A week of organised protests against Barclays Bank for their involvement in fracking and ownership of Third Energy begins across the country. 
- 3: The British steel union Community comes out in support of fracking and agrees a partnership with the shale gas trade lobby group UKOOG, saying the industry has the 'potential to support thousands of jobs'. It is the second trade union to back fracking, following GMB's announcement in June 2015. 
- 4: The Scottish Labour Party launch a private member's bill aiming to ban fracking in Scotland.  However the Herald reports that 'current Holyrood arithmetic is against [Claudia] Beamish's bill becoming law'.
- 8: At a meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Shale Gas Regulation and Planning on the community impact of fracking, a campaigner from Pennsylvania, US, urges the UK to learn from American mistakes and implement robust public protections against fracking. 
- 12: The UK’s largest ever anti-fracking gathering is held in Manchester with an estimated 2,000 people in attendance. 
- 15: Nottinghamshire County Council approves IGas application to test drill for shale gas at its Springs Road, Misson site. 
- 21: UK parliamentarians debate the government's 'shale wealth fund', led by Labour MP Caroline Flint. Flint calls for the fund to be divested to making households more energy efficient. 
- 22: A legal challenge is heard in the High Court by Friends of the Earth and campaign group Frack Free Ryedale against North Yorkshire County Council decision to approve test drilling at Third Energy’s Kirby Misperton site in May.  Meanwhile, the government announces changes that will make future challenges by activist groups more expensive. 
- 23: The Environment Agency grants permission for exploratory drilling by Dart Energy, a subsidiary of IGas, at Tinker Lane, Nottinghamshire. 
- 2: Cuadrilla announces six 'commitments' to ensure Lancashire benefits from its fracking operation, including increased energy security and support for local businesses and suppliers.  Soon after, the company announced it had awarded the construction contract for the fracking site to AE Yates Ltd, a Boston based civil engineering firm. 
- 7: Gloucestershire council unanimously votes to condemn the government’s plans for individual payments to people living in areas affected by fracking, and criticised by green campaigners as 'bribing'. 
- 9: Following a long running legal dispute, anti-fracking campaigner Tina Rothery is spared jail after she was held in contempt of court for refusing to pay Cuadrilla £55,000 in legal costs. In 2014, Rothery challenged an injunction tabled by the company that would have prevented protesters from gathering on land being considered for shale gas exploration. Campaigners and locals were jubilant. 
- 14: At a meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Shale Gas Regulation and Planning, MPs are told the cost of treating and transporting waste water from fracking could make the industry commercially non-viable.
- 20: The high court backs Third Energy's plans to frack at Kirby Misperton, rejecting a landmark bid by Friends of the Earth and Frack Free Ryedale to the block the decision by North Yorkshire County Council's to grant the company planning permission.  Campaigners and Ryedale residents were 'devastated' , insisting the council had disregarded concerns about climate change in its considerations, but vowed to 'continue to campaign on behalf of local communities for the sake of our children and their children’s health and wellbeing, and the long-term prosperity of our area.' 
- 1: A freedom of information request reveals INEOS plans to conduct seismic surveying in Sherwood Forest, a national nature reserve. 
- 4: The Advertising Standards Authority forces Friends of the Earth to withdraw misleading leaflets claiming fracking increases the risk of cancer for local residents. Energy companies hailed the decision as a victory against 'anti-fracking myths'. 
- 5: Cuadrilla starts construction for its fracking well at Preston New Road, Lancashire, sparking a series of protests at the site that last throughout the month. 
- 6: INEOS reveal plans for a shale gas site near Eckington, in north east Derbyshire. 
- 11: North Lincolnshire Council refuse planning permission to Egdon Resources for an unconventional oil production site at Wressle near Scunthorpe. Councillors expressed a lack of confidence in the Environment Agency's commitment to regulate the industry. 
- 15: UKOOG release a 'digital visualisation' report on the impact fracking would have on the UK countryside.  Kevin Hollinrake MP said the report would build confidence among residents in fracking areas, while campaigners criticised it for deliberately underestimating the number of wells being proposed in a given area. 
- 24: Parish councillors in the area picked by INEOS for its first shale gas planning application vote unanimously against fracking proposals. 
- 19 May: Rotherham Council rules that environmental impact assessment (EIA) is not required for Ineos's proposed vertical test drilling site at Harthill. 
- Conservative Party election manifesto backs increased fracking for the UK and proposes to change planning law to make it easier for companies to do exploratory tests and drilling. All non-fracking drilling would be classified as 'permitted development' with no need for councils to review applications.
- Queen's Speech does not include Tories' manifesto pledges on fracking and other shale gas production
- A task force set up by the Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas publish a critical report on fracking in Texas, USA. It found that the process pollutes the air, erodes soil and contaminates water, and that the shale oil boom had also degraded natural resources and overwhelmed small communities.
- 1-31 - Anti-fracking and climate change campaigners launch a month of protests against the shale gas industry
- 28 - Ineos Shale secures an interim High Court injunction against anti-fracking protestors. 
- UK government research by its Department of Business and Energy finds drastic fall in people backing drilling for shale gas since the department first started polling the public on the issue in 2012. Just 16 per cent supported fracking, down from 21 per cent in 2016.
- 7 - Nine protestors in court over protests against Cuadrilla's site in Lancashire. The group includes three local councillors.
- 17 - Academic research by a team of scientists at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh concludes that the potential for extracting UK shale gas is ‘overhyped’ and 'unlikely' to be economically viable. ' 'The science shows that our country's geology is simply unsuitable for shale oil and gas production,' explained chief scientist Professor John Underhill. 'It would be extremely unwise to rely on shale gas to ride to the rescue of the UK’s gas needs.'
- 18 - Cuadrilla begins drilling a 3.5km well at Preston New Road site, the first such work in six years since the firm's fracking operations were shut down after they were found to be the 'probable' cause of 50 separate earthquake tremors in the Blackpool area. Cuadrilla also made its first payment of £100,000 to a fund that will support community projects around its Blackpool site.
- 21 Conservative MP and leader of the House of Commons Andrea Leadsom confirmed in a question tabled in Parliament by Derbyshire MP Lee Rowley that the Government was considering how it could move forward in 2018 on its election manifesto pledge to make "major shale gas planning decisions ... the responsibility of the national planning regime.” Rowley's constituency includes Marsh Lane, one of the sites designated for exploration by petrochemical giant INEOS, which in November filed a 'non-determination' complaint against Derbyshire County Council for delays in deciding on shale gas plans for the area.
- George Monbiot, The UK's lack of fracking regulation is insane, The Guardian, 31 August 2011, accessed 27 October 2016.
- ITV News, Timeline: Fracking and earthquakes at Preese Hall, 13 December 2012, accessed July 2019
- Shale gas gets support from MPs in new report, Parliament.uk, accessed 12 October 2016.
- John Vidal, Camp Frack mobilises against UK shale gas well, 16 September 2011, accessed 27 October 2016.
- Tom Bawden, Exclusive: Fracking company - we caused 50 tremors in Blackpool – but we're not going to stop, Independent, 3 November 2011, accessed 12 October 2016.
- What is fracking? Public awareness of shale gas extraction is low, The University of Nottingham, 6 July 2012, accessed 27 October 2016.
- Boris Johnson, Ignore the doom merchants, Britain should get fracking, The Telegraph, 9 December 2012, accessed 27 October 2016.
- Gas fracking: Ministers approve shale gas extraction, BBC News, 13 December 2012, accessed 13 October 2016.
- Jonathan Brown, Gas extracted by fracking in Britain could fuel British homes within three years, Independent, 1 April 2013, accessed 27 October 2016.
- Damian Carrington, Emails reveal UK helped shale gas industry manage fracking opposition, The Guardian, 17 January 2014, accessed 5 January 2017.
- David Cameron, We cannot afford to miss out on shale gas, The Telegraph, 11 August 2013, accessed 13 October 2016.
- Fracking firm scaling back operation at Balcombe, BBC News, 16 August 2013, 13 October 2016.
- Jonathan Brown, Fracking company Cuadrilla pulls out of shale gas site in Lancashire, Independent, 4 October 2013, accessed 13 October 2016.
- Ministers reveal UK fracking roadmap, The Guardian, 17 December 2013, accessed 27 October 2016.
- Cameron urges fracking opponents to 'get on board', BBC News, 13 January 2014, accessed 27 September 2016.
- Damian Carrington, UK defeats European bid for fracking regulations, The Guardian, 14 January 2014, accessed 27 September 2016.
- The economic impact on UK energy policy of shale gas and oil, Parliament.uk, accessed 27 September 2016.
- Lords question Owen Paterson MP on shale gas, Parliament.uk, 28 January 2014, accessed 27 September 2016.
- Tom Pugh, No fracking at Balcombe, says energy company Cuadrilla, Independent, 24 January 2014, accessed 27 September 2016.
- Fiona Harvey and Adam Vaughan, Cuadrilla announces two new Lancashire fracking sites, The Guardian, 4 February 2014, accessed 27 September 2016.
- UK Shale Gas - where are we now?, Poyry website, accessed 27 September 2016.
- Nicholas Watt, George Osborne wants climate change tackled as cheaply as possible, The Guardian, 20 February 2014, accessed 27 September 2016.
- Leading countryside groups join forces to challenge fracking rules, The Wildlife Trusts, 13 March 2014, accessed 28 September 2016.
- BALCOMBE PARISH COUNCIL COMMENTS TO WEST SUSSEX COUNTY COUNCIL ON THE PLANNING APPLICATION BY CUADRILLA BALCOMBE LIMITED, Balcombe Parish Council, accessed 28 September 2016.
- Damian Carrington, Owen Paterson held urgent meeting for fracking boss, documents show, The Guardian, 21 March 2014, accessed 28 September 2016.
- Haroon Siddique, Green MP Caroline Lucas goes on trial over Sussex fracking protests, The Guardian, 24 March 2014, accessed 28 September 2016.
- IPCC tries a gamble with shale gas, Climate News Network, 15 April 2014, accessed 28 September 2014.
- Caroline Davies, Caroline Lucas cleared of anti-fracking protest charges, The Guardian, 17 April 2014, accessed 28 September 2016.
- Adam Vaughan, Cuadrilla gets green light for oil test at Balcombe, The Guardian, 29 April 2014, accessed 28 September 2016.
- Terry Macalister, IGas acquires Dart Energy to create UK's biggest shale gas explorer, The Guardian, 9 May 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Government proposals to simplify deep underground access for shale gas and geothermal industries, GOV.uk, 23 May 2014, 28 September 2016.
- Fracking trespass law changes opposed by 74% of British public, poll finds, The Guardian, 6 May 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Damian Carrington, Queen's speech: fracking to get boost from trespass law changes, The Guardian, 4 June 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Balcombe anti-fracking group in High Court challenge against energy company Cuadrilla, Leigh Day, 12 June 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Shale gas and fracking: examining the evidence, Scientists for Global Responsibility, 21 July 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- West Sussex county council turns down shale gas exploration bid, The Guardian, 22 July 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Damian Carrington, Government pushes ahead with fracking plan despite wide opposition The Guardian, 28 July 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Rowena Mason, Fracking push gets go-ahead across UK as ministers tighten safeguards, The Guardian, 28 July 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Emily Gosden, Legal challenge over plans for fracking firm Cuadrilla to return to Balcombe, The Telegraph, 1 August 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Rowena Mason, Fracking campaigners criticise 'censored' report on house prices, The Guardian, 10 August 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Terry Macalister, Labour attempts to strengthen regulation of UK fracking industry, The Guardian, 25 August 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- South Downs oil drilling refusal recommended, BBC News, 3 September 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Emily Gosden, Fracking firm's South Downs drilling plans rejected, The Telegraph, 11 Sep 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- John Vidal, East Yorkshire gas-drilling site making locals ‘sick from noxious smells’, The Guardian, 19 September 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Damian Carrington, Fracking trespass law changes move forward despite huge public opposition, The Guardian, 26 September 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- DECC appoints new chief scientific advisor], GOV.uk, 2 October 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- First civil service chief executive appointed, The Guardian, 2 October 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Celtique to appeal against drilling decision at Kirdford and Wisborough Green, Midhurst and Petworth Observer, 17 October 2014, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Will Nichols, UK proposes shale gas sovereign wealth fund, The Guardian, 10 November 2014, accessed 30 September 2016.
- Elizabeth Bast, Shakuntala Makhijani, Sam Pickard, and Shelagh Whitley, The fossil fuel bailout, Overseas Development Institute, accessed 30 September 2016.
- Ineos to invest £640m in UK shale gas exploration, BBC News, 20 November 2014, accessed 30 September 2016.
- Roseacre Wood fracking: Environment Agency 'minded to grant' permits, BBC News, 24 November 2014, accessed 30 September 2016.
- Nicole Goebel, UK announces shale gas fund to avoid 'squandering' revenue, DW, 3 December 2014, accessed 30 September 2014.
- Balcombe anti-fracking group loses court bid, BBC News, 5 December 2014, accessed 30 September 2014.
- James Murray, Labour calls for tougher shale gas regulations, businessGreen, 8 December 2014, accessed 30 September 2014.
- Cuadrilla Lancashire fracking application 'should be refused', BBC News, 21 January 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- Environmental Audit Committee calls for halt to fracking, Parliament.uk, 26 January 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- Damian Carrington, George Osborne urges ministers to fast-track fracking measures in leaked letter, The Guardian, 26 January 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Fracking moratorium rejected by MPs, BBC News, 26 January 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- Damian Carrington, Lancashire council defers Cuadrilla fracking decision, The Guardian, 28 January 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- Libby Brooks, Scotland announces moratorium on fracking for shale gas, The Guardian, 28 January 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- Cuadrilla News Environment Agency Grants Cuadrilla’s Environmental Permits For Roseacre Wood, Cuadrilla Resources, 6 February 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- The Infrastructure Bill returned to the House of Lords on Monday 9 February for consideration of Commons' changes, Parliament.uk, 10 February 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- Damian Carrington, Fracking will be allowed under national parks, UK decides, The Guardian, 12 February 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- Cuadrilla: Fracking firm seismic monitor plan refused, BBC News, 25 February 2015, accessed 15 September 2016
- INEOS to acquire significant share of key IGas North-West shale gas assets, INEOS website, 10 March 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Celtique Energie drops two West Sussex drilling bids, BBC News, 12 March 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Drilling of borehole at Afan Valley beauty spot approved, BBC News, 17 March 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Gas drilling bosses oppose Shropshire public inquiry, Shropshire Star, 18 March 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Department for Communities and Local Government Uploads, GOV.uk, 26 March 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Government Response To The Environmental Audit Committee’s Inquiry Into Environmental Risks Of Fracking, Parliament.uk, 26 March 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Over 1,000 election candidates sign 'Frack Free Promise', businessGreen, 23 April 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Update - Horse Hill, UK Weald Basin, UK Oil & Gas Investments PLC Statement, 28 April 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Ruth Hayhurst, Investigation finds multiple planning breaches and technical problems at Cuadrilla’s drilling sites, Drill or Drop, 5 May 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Niamh Burns, IGas chief exec steps down, Energy Voice, 8 May 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Jessica Elgot, Rowena Mason and Andrew Sparrow, David Cameron's new cabinet lineup, The Guardian, 11 May 2015, accessed on 20 September 2016
- North Yorkshire fracking plans submitted to council, BBC News, 22 May 2015, accessed 16 September 2016
- Plans for third East Yorkshire oil and gas drill site approved, BBC News, 4 June 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Archive | GMB Congress On Onshore Fracking, GMB website, 8 June 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Tom Bawden, Government trying to fast-track fracking without public consent, Independent, 11 June 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Roseacre Wood fracking bid rejected by Lancashire councillors, BBC News, 25 June 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Adam Vaughan, Fracking application rejected by Lancashire county council, The Guardian, 29 June 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Draft Shale Gas Rural Economy Impacts paper, GOV.uk, 1 July 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Tony Bosworth, Defra fracking report – the truths the Government tried to hide, Friends of the Earth, 3 July 2015, accessed 20 September 2016
- Government 'delayed fracking report' until after vote, Greenpeace claims, BBC News, 25 November 2016, accessed 30 November 2016.
- Implications of the new Government for the UK shale industry, APPG Unconventional Oil and Gas website, 14 July 2015, accessed 21 September 2016.
- Andy Rowell, UK Fracking Task Force calls for improved safety standards, Spinwatch, 16 July 2015, accessed 21 September 2016.
- Dr Damien Short and Dr Tom Kerns, Permanent Peoples' Tribunal puts fracking on trial, Ecologist, 23 July 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Energy firm wins Surrey Hills oil drilling battle, BBC News, 8 August 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Faster decision making on shale gas for economic growth and energy security, GOV.uk, 13 August 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Emily Gosden, Fracking in the UK: could it happen near you?, The Telegraph, 18 August 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Amendment to permitted development rights for drilling boreholes for groundwater monitoring for petroleum exploration, Gov.uk, 1 August 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Fiona Harvey, Shale gas fracking should go ahead in UK, says taskforce, The Guardian, 16 September, accessed 19 September 2016
- Planning for Onshore Oil and Gas:Written statement - HCWS201, Parliament.uk, 16 September 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Almost 300 of England’s most important wildlife sites at risk from fracking, RSPB website, 16 September 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Mark H Durkan publishes planning blueprint for Northern Ireland, BBC News, 28 September 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Ryedale District Council votes on five-year fracking ban, BBC News, 9 October 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Group wins right to challenge Lancashire fracking monitoring plan, BBC News, 24 October 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Summary of event with Andrea Leadsom MP, Minister of State at the Department of Energy and Climate Change, APPG Unconventional Oil and Gas website, 26 October 2015, accessed 21 September 2016.
- Surface Development Restrictions for Hydraulic Fracturing, GOV.uk, 4 November 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Lancashire fracking backers ‘against it really’, Lancashire Telegraph, 18 November 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Damian Carrington, [https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/nov/25/uk-cancels-pioneering-1bn-carbon-capture-and-storage-competition UK cancels pioneering £1bn carbon capture and storage competition, The Guardian, 25 November 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Damian Carrington, UK is going into reverse on clean energy, says former Environment Agency head, The Guardian, 15 December 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Matthew Weaver, Minister says he will have final say on Lancashire fracking plan, The Guardian, 27 November 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Call for fracking to get started in UK, BBC News, 15 December 2015, accessed 6 October 2015.
- Frances Perraudin, Fracking under national parks approved by MPs amid acrimony, The Guardian, 16 December 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- New licences for UK shale gas exploration, BBC News, 17 December 2015, accessed 19 September 2016
- Andy Rowell, Fracking hypocrites: the Tories' 'localism' promises won't apply to Lancashire, Spinwatch, 18 May 2016, accessed 21 September 2016.
- Ruth Hayhurst, INEOS interview: Company spotlight turns to English shale gas areas, Drill or Drop, 8 January 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- Andy Rowell, Householders affected by floods face insurance double-whammy if they live nearby planned fracking sites, Independent, 9 January 2016, accessed 6 January 2017.
- Damien Gayle, Anti-fracking protesters evicted from Cheshire camp, The Guardian, 12 January 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- Kevin Hollinrake, All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Unconventional Oil and Gas, Kevin Hollinrake's website, 18 January 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- Misson borehole drilling plan given the green light, Retford Times, 19 January 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- Christopher Hope, Ministers plot to foil anti-frackers, The Telegraph, 30 January 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- 'No commercial drilling' at Upton anti-fracking protest site, IGas says, BBC News, 5 February 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- David Holmes, 'Outraged' Cheshire police boss aims to recover £200K costs from energy firm, The Chester Chronicle, 8 February 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- Energy firm IGas will not pay for Upton anti-fracking camp police operation, The Chester Standard, 24 March 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Frances Perraudin, Lancashire council's fracking refusal was 'democracy in action', The Guardian, 9 February 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- Cuadrilla wins Lancashire monitoring site appeal, BBC News, 23 February 2016, accessed 13 September 2016
- Ryedale District Council votes to oppose fracking at site in Kirby Misperton, ITV News, 15 March 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Final arguments as Fylde frack appeal ends after 19 days, The Blackpool Gazette, 17 March 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Appeals Casework Portal Reference: APP/L6940/A/16/3145869 GOV.uk, accessed 14 September 2016
- Minister extends moratorium to underground coal gasification, GOV.wales, 25 March 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Ruth Hayhurst, IGas gets go-ahead for 15 years of gas and oil production at Bletchingley, Surrey, Drill or Drop, 30 March 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Guidance on fracking: developing shale oil and gas in the UK, GOV.uk, accessed 14 September 2016
- Third Energy is granted fracking permits for a site in North Yorkshire, GOV.uk, 11 April 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- [http://appgshalegas.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/160420-Transcript-APPG-on-Shale-Gas-Regulation-Planning.pdf Transcript of APPG on shale gas regulation and planning, APPGShalegas.uk, 20 April 2016, accessed 21 September 2016.
- Government should accept recommendation on fifth carbon budget, Parliament.uk, 27 April 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Adam Vaughan, UK support for fracking hits new low, The Guardian, 28 April 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Greg Russell, Ineos claims media's 'scare stories' over fracking are distorting public's perceptions of the issue, The National, 5 May 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Damian Carrington, Fracking investors losing patience with planning delays, says industry boss, The Guardian, 19 May 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Landmark North Yorkshire fracking operation approved, BBC News, 23 May 2016, accessed 14 September 2016.
- UK Oil & Gas Investments PLC ("UKOG" or the "Company") Placing for Further Funding for Weald Basin Activities, accessed on 14 September 2016
- MSPs vote in favour of a fracking ban as SNP abstain, BBC News, 1 June 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Woodburn oil well: Infrastructure minister 'to change planning process', BBC News, 6 June 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- UK Oil & Gas Investments PLC ("UKOG" or the "Company") Acquisition of 100% interest in 300 sq km Licence in Weald Kimmeridge Limestone Oil Province , London Stock Exchange, 13 June 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Exploitation of onshore petroleum requires three key tests to be met, CCC says, Committee on Climate Change, 7 July 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Bassetlaw planners make seismic decision, Frack Free Tinker Lane, July 8 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Surrey County Council Agenda and minutes, GOV.uk, 13 July 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Theresa May shakes up government with new-look cabinet, BBC News, 14 July 2016, accessed 21 September 2016
- Ian Johnston, Climate change department closed by Theresa May in 'plain stupid' and 'deeply worrying' move, The Independent, 14 July 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Andy Rowell, Chemical giant Ineos plans 30 frack wells in UK within months, Spinwatch, 19 July 2016, accessed 21 September 2016
- HU11 4LP, Rathlin Energy UK Limited: environmental permit issued, GOV.uk, 2 August 2016, accessed 14 September 2016
- Daniel Boffey, Local people to get cash payments from fracking, The Guardian, 7 August 2016, 14 September 2016
- Climate Change: Fracking Volume 774, Parliament.uk, 06 September 2016, accessed 20 September 2016
- Transcript Of APPG On Shale Gas Regulation & Planning Wednesday 7th September 2016, APPGShalegas.uk, accessed 20 September 2016
- Ruth Hayhurst, Fylde doesn’t look promising for fracking – veteran US geologist, Drill or Drop, 13 September 2016, accessed 20 September 2016
- Fracking licences in Gloucestershire and Wiltshire 'will not be used', BBC News, 15 September 2016, accessed 20 September 2016
- Adam Vaughan, Labour government would ban fracking in UK, The Guardian, 26 September 2016, accessed 4 October 2016.
- Adam Vaughan Bid to drill shale wells in Nottinghamshire 'should get green light', The Guardian, 27 September 2016, accessed 28 September 2016.
- Rob Davies, First shipment of fracked shale gas set to arrive in UK, The Guardian, 27 September 2016, accessed 29 September 2016.
- Adam Vaughan, Fracking in UK given go-ahead as Lancashire council rejection overturned, The Guardian, 6 October 2016, accessed 6 October 2016.
- Scottish government to 'block' underground coal gasification, BBC News, 6 October 2016, accessed 20 October 2016.
- Adam Vaughan, British public support for fracking sinks to lowest ever level, The Guardian, 13 October 2016, accessed 20 October 2016.
- UK public support for fracking falls to lowest level, The Guardian, 27 October 2016, accessed 7 November 2016.
- Horse Hill-1 Oil Discovery, Weald Basin, UK Planning Application for Significant Appraisal Programme, UK Weald Basin, UK Oil & Gas Investments PLC, 17 October 2016, accessed 20 October 2016.
- Preston campaigners launch legal challenge to fracking in Lancashire, ITV News, 19 October 2016, 20 October 2016.
- Martha Harris, Fracking update: community groups take legal action, The Planner, 22 November 2016, accessed 30 November 2016.
- Ruth Hayhurst, Third legal challenge underway to Lancashire fracking, DrillorDrop, 2 December 2016, accessed 6 December 2016.
- Ellen Gibson, The Week of Action to Stop Barclays Fracking has begun!, Fossil Free UK, 24 October 2016, accessed 8 November 2016.
- Emily Gosden, Losses mount at Cuadrilla as it counts the cost of fracking delays, The Telegraph, 29 October 2016, accessed 7 November 2016.
- Community, the trade union, joins with UKOOG to promote onshore oil and gas development, UKOOG, accessed 7 November 2016.
- Scottish Labour launch fracking ban members bill, BBC News, 4 November 2016, accessed 7 November 2016.
- APPG | Agenda, APPGShalegas.uk, accessed 10 November 2016.
- UK’s largest ever anti-fracking gathering held in Manchester today, Frack Free Greater Manchester, 12 November 2016, accessed 30 November 2016.
- Karolin Schaps, IGas receives approval for shale gas exploration permit, Reuters, 15 November 2016, accessed 18 November 2016.
- TheyWorkForYou | Shale Wealth Fund, TheyWorkForYou, accessed 30 November 2016.
- Martha Harris, Fracking update: community groups take legal action, The Planner, 22 November 2016, accessed 30 November 2016.
- Ruth Hayhurst, New government rules could raise cost of legal challenges to fracking, Drill or Drop, 21 November 2016, accessed 30 November 2016.
- isaacashe, New site approved for potential fracking in Nottinghamshire, Nottingham Post, 23 November 2016, accessed 30 November 2016.
- Fracking firm Cuadrilla pledges 'commitment to Lancashire', BBC News, 2 December 2016, accessed 6 December 2016.
- Andy Scoble, Firm wins £1.5 million fracking site contract, The Bolton News, 5 December 2016, accessed 6 December 2016.
- Jamie Wiseman, Councillors in Gloucestershire take further steps to shut the door on fracking, Gazette, 9 December 2016, accessed 12 December 2016.
- Frances Perraudin, Anti-fracking activist spared jail after refusing to pay court £55,000, The Guardian, 9 December 2016, accessed 12 December 2016.
- Adam Vaughan, Fracking to go ahead in North Yorkshire after high court ruling, The Guardian, 20 December 2016, accessed 20 December 2016.
- High court ruling press release, Frack Free Rydale, 20 December 2016, accessed 20December 2016.
- David Behrens, ‘Outrage’ as Ryedale residents lose landmark case to prevent fracking in Yorkshire http://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/news/fracking/outrage-as-ryedale-residents-lose-landmark-case-to-prevent-fracking-in-yorkshire-1-8297982, The Yorkshire Post, 20 December 2016, accessed 20 December 2016.
- Sherwood Forest fracking plans revealed, Friends of the Earth, 1 January 2017, accessed 3 January 2017.
- Andrew Ward, Friends of the Earth forced to withdraw anti-fracking leaflets, Financial Times, 4 January 2017, accessed 5 January 2017.
- Adam Vaughan, Cuadrilla starts work on Lancashire fracking site, The Guardian, 5 January 2017, accessed 5 January 2017.
- INEOS Shale submits environmental screening report to Derbyshire County Council, INEOS Shale, 6 January 2017, accessed 11 January 2017.
- Calvin Robinson, Recap: Councillors reject bid to drill for oil and gas in North Lincolnshire - video, Scunthorpe Telegraph, 11 January 2017, accessed 23 January 2017.
- UKOOG pad density visualisation, Vimeo, accessed 23 January 2017.
- Alexa Copeland, Anti-fracking campaigners claim industry is presenting 'Disney fairytale fantasy' of how drilling would affect North Yorkshire landscape, The Northern Echo, 17 January 2017, accessed 23 January 2017.
- Liam Norcliffe, Councillors vote against fracking - but warn of tough battle ahead, Derbyshire Times, 24 January 2017, accessed 26 January 2017.
- Gareth Dennison, Rotherham fracking bid moves to next stage, Rotherham Advertiser, 19/05/2017
- Upstream Limited and others v Persons Unknown Approved Note of Judgment of Mr Justice Morgan dated 28 July 2017
- Andrew Ward, Drilling begins on first UK shale well for six years, FT, 18 August 2017, accessed 22 August 2017
- TheyWorkForYou, 21 December 2017