Todd Sandler

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Sandler is a prolific author of academic papers on terrorism applying game theory and Public choice economic theory to the phenomenon. He is on the editorial boards of Terrorism and Political Violence and the Annual Editions of Violence and Terrorism. His 'heroes' include theorists of 'Public choice' economics such as John Nash and James M. Buchanan as well as Leon Walras, Jon Cauley, Mancur Olson, William S. Vickrey and Avinash Dixit[1]

According to a biographical note on his own website:

Professor Sandler applies theoretical and empirical models of economics to the study of international political economy, defense, environmental issues, and public finance. He is particularly interested in the application of game theory (noncooperative and cooperative) and microeconomics to issues in international relations... In a series of innovative papers since 1983, he applied theoretic and empirical methods to the study of international terrorism... He is also working on new papers on transnational terrorism, global public goods, and a new book on The Political Economy of Terrorism.[2]


Contact, References and Resources


Publications, papers


  • Global Collective Action (Cambridge, 2004),
  • Regional Public Goods: Typologies, Provision, Financing, and Development Assistance (Almqvist & Wicksell International, 2002),
  • Economic Concepts for the Social Sciences (Cambridge University Press, 2001, translated into Chinese and Russian),
  • The Political Economy of NATO (Cambridge 1999 with Keith Hartley);
  • The Theory of Externalities, Public Goods, and Clubs Goods, 2nd Ed. (Cambridge 1996 with Richard Cornes);
  • The Economics of Defense (Cambridge 1995 with Keith Hartley, translated into Japanese);
  • Handbook of Defense Economics (North-Holland 1995 co-edited with Keith Hartley, translated into Chinese); and
  • Collective Action: Theory and Applications (University of Michigan 1992).

Papers on terrorism

  1. "CBRN Attack Perpetrators: An Empirical Study," Foreign Policy Analysis, October 2007. - Download in PDF
  2. "Terrorist Signalling and the Value of Intelligence," British Journal of Political Science, October 2007. - Download in PDF
  3. "Economic Consequences of Terrorism in Developed and Developing Countries: An Overview," in Philip Keefer and Norman Loayza (eds.), Terrorism and Economic Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 17-47, forthcoming. - Download in PDF
  4. "Terrorist Backlash, Terrorism Mitigation, and Policy Delegation," Journal of Public Economics, September 2007. - Download in PDF
  5. "Global Terrorism: Deterrence Versus Preemption," Canadian Journal of Economics, November 2006. - Download in PDF
  6. "Distribution of Transnational Terrorism among Countries by Income Class and Geography after 9/11," International Studies Quarterly, June 2006. - Download in PDF
  7. "Collective Versus Unilateral Responses to Terrorism," Public Choice, July 2005. - Download in PDF
  8. "Counterterrorism: A Game-Theoretic Analysis," Journal of Conflict Resolution, April 2005. - Download in PDF
  9. "The Dilemma of the Prisoners' Dilemmas," KYKLOS, No.1, 2005.
  10. "After 9/11: Is It All Different Now?," Journal of Conflict Resolution, April 2005.
  11. "Too Much of a Good Thing? The Proactive Response Dilemma," (with B. Peter Rosendorff) Journal of Conflict Resolution, October 2004
  12. "Transnational Terrorism: An Economic Analysis," (with Walter Enders) in H.W. Richardson, P. Gordon, and J.E. Moore II (eds.), The Economic Impact of Terrorist Attacks (Edward Elgar, forthcoming in 2005).
  13. "An Economic Perspective of Transnational Terrorism." with Walter Enders, European Journal of Political Economy, June 2004
  14. "Collective Goods, Common Agency, and Third Party Intervention," (with Kevin Siqueira) Bulletin of Economic Research, January 2004
  15. "What Do We Know About the Substitution Effect in Transnational Terrorism?" (with Walter Enders) in Andrew Silke and G. Ilardi(eds.) Researching Terrorism Trends, Achievments, Failures (Frank Cass) 2004
  16. "Terrorism and Game Theory," with Daniel Arce, Simulation & Gaming, September 2003
  17. "Collective Action and Transnational Terrorism," World Economy, June 2003
  18. An Evolutionary Game Approach to Fundamentalism and Conflict," (with Daniel Arce), Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, March 2003 - Download in PDF
  19. "Patterns of Transnational Terrorism, 1970-99: Alternative Time Series Estimates," with Walter Enders, International Studies Quarterly, June 2002