Potomac Institute for Policy Studies

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The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies (PIPS) is an independent, 501(c)(3), not-for-profit public policy research institute. "The Institute identifies and aggressively shepherds discussion on key science and technology issues facing our society, providing in particular, an academic forum for the study of related policy issues. From these discussions and forums ... [the Institute developes] meaningful science and technology policy options and ensure their implementation at the intersection of business and government. [1]

The Institute's current endeavors have required the formation of special efforts in:

  • Terrorism and asymmetry
  • Emerging threats and opportunities
  • National health policies
  • Science and technology forecasting
  • National security

Homeland Defense

In January 2001, the Institute received a $175,000 grant from the Smith Richardson Foundation to conduct a study entitled "Assessing Technologies for Biological Terrorism Consequence Management":

"David Siegrist will examine the capability of homeland defense policies to protect against the threat of biological weapons terrorism. He will research emerging consequence management technologies and convene expert panels to make recommendations regarding investment in research and development. The project will result in published policy papers and briefings for policy makers."

Research from this project, at least in part, resulted in the PIPS report "Advanced Technology Needs for Consequence Management of Biological Terrorism" (14-page Executive Summary), which was published on October 15, 1999.

Academic Centers

The Institute supports a variety of government offices including the:

Additionally, the Institute's web site provides links to Publications, many of which can be downloaded in .pdf format.


Board of Directors

Lyle Ashton Cox, Jr. is Chief Scientist of Information Manufacturing Corporation. He has over thirty years of experience in high performance information systems in a wide variety of application environments. He has held a number of senior positions in information technology enterprises, including: MASINT Chair Research Professor, Naval Postgraduate School; Chief Architect, United States Measurement and Signature Intelligence System, Defense Intelligence Agency; Vice President, Corporate Development, Analytic Services Incorporated; Vice President and Chief Technical Officer, Science Applications International Corporation's Technology Applications Sector; Deputy Group Manager of Digital Equipment Corporation's Government Systems Group; Assistant Director, White House Office of Planning and Evaluation; and Director of the National Security Council Crisis Management System. Dr. Cox served in the United States Navy, rising to the rank of Captain. He also served as consultant to several state and local law enforcement agencies, lecturer (with rank of full professor) at George Washington University, and member of NASA's Advisory Committee on the International Space Station. He currently serves on the Board of Advisors of Potomac State College. Dr. Cox earned a Ph.D. in Computing Science at the University of California, and has also earned degrees in engineering, law, and astronomy. Dr. Cox is an active member of the Chickasaw Nation.

Charles Scalera, Esq. is a partner of The Potomac Advocates, a Washington, D.C. consulting firm. He focuses his practice on legislative and administrative law. He represents both foreign and domestic clients, including the President of Ukraine, Leonid Kuchma. Mr. Scalera served as Administrative Assistant and Chief of Staff to the Honorable Peter W. Rodino, Jr., Chairman, House Judiciary Committee. With extensive experience in local, state, and national elections, Mr. Scalera served as Senior Political Advisor to the Presidential Campaign of Senator Joseph Biden, and has served on several other Presidential Campaigns. He was appointed by Democratic National Committee Chairman Ronald H. Brown to serve on the Committee’s National Lawyer’s Executive Council. He serves on the Board of Directors of several for profit and not-for-profit organizations. He is co-founder of the Italian American Leadership Council for Clinton/Gore 1992 and 1996 and serves on the Board of Directors of the Italian American Democratic Leadership Council. Mr. Scalera is a member of several Federal courts, and of the U.S. Supreme Court Bar.

Howard Schue is a Partner and Executive Vice President of Technology Strategies and Alliances Corporation specializing in line and marketing management, new business development, and strategic planning in the aerospace/defense and the command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I) industries. Mr. Schue served on the 1993 Defense Science Board Summer Study on Global Surveillance and on the 1994 Summer Study on Information Architecture for the Battlefield. He is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, the National Military Intelligence Association, the American Society of Military Comptrollers, the Air Force Association, the Association of Old Crows, the Reserve Officers Association, the Air War College Alumni Association, the Planetary Society, the West Point Association of Graduates, and the Army Athletic Association.

Gary Sojka is a partner of The Potomac Advocates, a Washington, D.C. consulting firm. He concentrates on a wide array of issues related to technology and government policy. Prior to this move into the consulting world, Mr. Sojka served as a professional staff member of the U.S. Senate for eight years, including positions on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Armed Services Committee. From 1992 to 1994 he held the position of Deputy to the Minority Staff Director on the Intelligence Committee. Mr. Sojka also has vast experience with strategic defense and intelligence, having acted as a defense analyst for both the Defense Intelligence Agency and the Office of Naval Intelligence.[1]

Board of Regents

  • General Alfred M. Gray, USMC (Ret.), Chairman, Board of Regents and Senior Fellow. In 1991, General Alfred Gray retired from the U.S. Marine Corps after 41 years of service and joined Garber International Associates (GIA) as a Senior Associate. From 1987 to 1991, General Gray served as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and was the 29th Commandant of the Marine Corps. He served as military advisor to the President, the National Security Council and the Secretary of Defense. General Gray holds a B.S. from the State University of New York. He also attended Lafayette College, the Marine Corps Command and Staff College, Army War College and did graduate work at Syracuse University. General Gray is the recipient of a Military Science degree from Norwich University and a Doctor of Strategic Intelligence degree from the Defense Intelligence College. He is currently a Senior Fellow at the Institute.
  • Professor Yonah Alexander, Member, Board of Regents
  • Vice Admiral Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., USN (Ret.), Member, Board of Regents and Senior Fellow. Vice Admiral Baciocco graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1953, where he received a Bachelor of Science in engineering and later completed graduate level studies in the field of nuclear engineering as part of his training in the naval nuclear propulsion program. He served as Chief of Naval Research from 1978-1981 and as the Director of Research, Development, and Acquisition from 1983-1987. Upon retirement, he established the Baciocco Group, Inc., a technical and management consulting practice and has since been engaged in a broad range of business and pro bono activities with industry, government, and academe, including memberships on the Naval Studies Board and the Army Science Board. He has also provided his time to serving on the Boards of Directors of several corporations, both public and private. He is a Trustee of the South Carolina Research Authority, and serves as a Director of the Foundation for Research Development at the Medical University of South Carolina. Admiral Baciocco has been designated a lifetime National Associate of the National Academies by the Council of the National Academies of Sciences.
  • Jeff Baxter, Member, Board of Regents and Senior Fellow. Mr. Jeff Baxter currently serves as Chairman of the Civilian Advisory Board for Ballistic Missile Defense. He has acted in an advisory capacity for Congressmen Curt Weldon and Dana Rohrabacher, both members of the House Science Committee, and has participated in numerous wargames for the Pentagon. Mr. Baxter was invited to serve on the Laser Advisory Board at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has lectured at the University of Manitoba School of Political Science on the topic of regional conflict and missile defense. He is a world-renowned guitarist and a former member of both Steely Dan and the Doobie Brothers.
  • Terry Collins, Member, Board of Regents. Dr. Collins is the Chairman of the Board, CEO and President of ArgonST. Dr. Collins has been a Director of the Company since September 2004. Dr. Collins also serves on the Board of Directors of James Monroe Bank. Dr. Collins was one of the three original founders of Argon Engineering Associates, Inc., (Argon Engineering) in 1997. Dr. Collins served as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Argon Engineering from its inception until the merger with Sensytech in September 2004. From 1995 until 1997 he was the General Manager of the Falls Church division of Raytheon E-Systems. From 1989 until 1995 Dr. Collins was President of Engineering Research Associates, a wholly owned subsidiary of E-Systems Corporation. Dr. Collins served as the senior member of the engineering management team at Engineering Research Associates from 1979 until its acquisition by E-Systems Corporation in 1989. *Dr. Rita R. Colwell, Member, Board of Regents. Dr. Colwell is Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland, College Park, and the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. She is also Chairman and Senior Vice President of Canon US Life Sciences, Inc., a subsidiary of Canon, Inc. focused on medical instrumentation. Dr. Colwell served as Director of the National Science Foundation from August 1998 to February 2004 and was the Founding President of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute between 1988 and 1998. She holds many honorary degrees from universities and colleges around the world including her alma mater, Purdue University, and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Daniel J. Gallington, Member, Board of Regents and Senior Fellow. Daniel Gallington is a Consultant and Senior Fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. In the past, he led the Institute's studies and projects related to the dynamics between technology, privacy and national security. Mr. Gallington served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Territorial Security in the Office of the Secretary of Defense while also serving as Special Assistant for Special Operations and Combating Terrorism to the Undersecretary Defense for Policy, among other positions, and was awarded the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service. He was Chief Counsel to the National Commission for the Review of the National Reconnaissance Office, General Counsel to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Deputy Counsel for Intelligence Policy at the Department of Justice, Legal Advisor for Intelligence Oversight in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Executive Director for the Defense Policy Board, as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the Nuclear and Space Talks with the (former) Soviet Union. A former Air Force Officer, Mr. Gallington served tours in Europe, Asia, the Pacific, and with the Startegic Air Command. Mr. Gallington received B.S. and J.D. degrees from the University of Illinois, and an LL.M degree in international law from the University of Michigan Law School.
  • Jay Grove, Member, Board of Regents. Jay Grove is a Vice President with Argon ST, based in San Diego, California. Prior to joining Argon ST, Mr. Grove is a Vice President of EMS Technologies, Inc. Appointed in January 2001, Mr. Grove provides strategic direction and operational leadership for the Atlanta-based, Defense & Space Systems Division of EMS. The 300-person division is a leader in microwave systems development for sensor, communication and national security space applications. Prior to joining EMS, Mr. Grove served technical, management, and leadership roles at ViaSat, Inc., Lockheed-Martin Corporation, and TRW, Inc. Mr. Grove holds a BS degree in Electrical Systems Engineering from Wright State University, a MS degree in Engineering from the University of Dayton, and has completed the Georgia Institute of Technology Management Institute and the Stanford University Executive Institute.
  • Charles Herzfeld, Ph.D. Member, Board of Regents and Senior Fellow. At present, Dr. Herzfeld is a Senior Fellow at the Institute and consults for a number of government, commercial and other "not for profit" organizations. Among these is the Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arete, Inc. of Sherman Oaks, CA, Digital Systems International, Arlington, VA., the Sandia National Laboratory, Applied Minds Corporation of Glendale CA, and the Northrop-Grumman Corporation. In this capacity, he focuses on helping clients with business problems associated with the effective use of technology in their markets. He also consults for the Defense Advanced Research Agency, and the National Intelligence Council. He was a member of the President's Information Advisory Council (PITAC) National Security Panel.
  • Kathleen Kiernan, Ph.D., Member, Board of Regents

Dr. Kiernan is a 29-year veteran of Federal Law Enforcement and is currently CEO of the The Kiernan Group in Washington, D.C. which supports both federal and civil clients with a variety of consulting services. She previously served as the Assistant Director for the Office of Strategic Intelligence and Information for the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) where she was responsible for the design and implementation of an intelligence-led organizational strategy to mine and disseminate data related to explosives, firearms and illegal tobacco diversion, the traditional and non-traditional tools of terrorism. Dr. Kiernan has a Doctorate in Education from Northern Illinois University (with highest honors) and a M.S. in Strategic Intelligence from the Joint Military Intelligence College in Washington, D.C. She also holds a M.A. in International Transactions from George Mason University. Dr. Kiernan has been involved with the Intelligence Community for over a decade, and served as the ATF representative to the Counterterrorism Center (CTC) at CIA during 1993-1995. Dr. Kiernan is a senior member on the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Terrorism subcommittee, and has presented training on Critical Incident Management and Explosives response protocol on a worldwide basis.

  • Robert V. LaPenta, Member, Board of Regents. Mr. LaPenta is one of the co-founders of L-3 Communications. He was President and CFO of L-3 before he left the company to create L-1 Investment Partners, a new company that will conduct private investments in the biometrics market. Before his success with L-3 Communications, LaPenta was with Loral Corporation/Lockheed Martin. His acquisitions expertise at L-3 may provide a good fit for investing in biometrics. L-1 is based in Stamford, Connecticut.
  • David C. Miller, Jr., Member, Board of Regents

Ambassador David Miller is a private investor and consultant to a number of major U.S. corporations on issues of international business. Ambassador Miller was Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs on the National Security Council (NSC) staff for President George H. W. Bush from 1989-90, and United States Ambassador to Tanzania from 1981 to 1984 and Zimbabwe from 1984 to 1986. His NSC portfolio included Africa, the United Nations, refugees, public diplomacy, counterterrorism, counternarcotics, and low-intensity conflict. Ambassador Miller received his Bachelor's Degree from Harvard University, his JD from the University of Michigan Law School, and an Honorary Doctor of Law Degree from Lewis and Clark College. Ambassador Miller founded and serves as Chairman of the Special Operations Fund, which provides scholarships for children and widows of deceased members of special mission military units. He is also a member of the boards of the Georgetown University's Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Council of American Ambassadors, and the District of Columbia Bar.

  • Gordon Oehler, Ph.D., Member, Board of Regents and Senior Fellow. Dr. Gordon Oehler retired from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) on October 31, 1997 after 25 years of service. Dr. Oehler's last assignment was Director of the Non-Proliferation Center at the CIA, and is recognized as one of the nation's leading experts on technology, proliferation, weapons of mass destruction, and terrorism. Dr. Oehler received both a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering and a Ph.D. in Physics from Rensselear Polytechnic Institute. After receiving his Ph.D., Dr. Oehler worked for a small firm in upper New York designing electronic instrumentation for metallurgical applications. He subsequently joined the Agency in 1972 and has served in a variety of analytical and management positions involving weapons systems analysis and foreign policy analysis, including Chief of the Agency's Office of Scientific and Weapons Research, the office responsible for the analysis and reporting of foreign weapons system capabilities. He is a 1981 graduate of the National War College. In April, 1989, Dr. Oehler was appointed the National Intelligence Officer for Science, Technology, and Proliferation. In this capacity, he was responsible for community affairs dealing with evolving national level S&T issues, including the worldwide proliferation of ballistic missiles and the proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. In April 1992, Dr. Oehler was appointed Director of the new Nonproliferation Center. In this capacity, Dr. Oehler has become the senior community spokesman on proliferation issues.
  • Joseph Paresi, Member, Board of Regents Joe Paresi is Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer of L-1 Identity Solutions and is a partner of L-1 Investment Partners. Mr. Paresi brings three decades of executive management, product development, and design engineering experience in the technology and defense industries to his role within the firm. Prior to joining L-1 Investment Partners, he served as corporate vice president of product development for L-3 Communications and as president of L-3 Security & Detection Systems from 1997 to 2005. During his tenure, Paresi was responsible for founding the company’s Security Systems division, which grew to $300 million in annual revenues and 1,000 employees. His group was responsible for developing many advanced products for the Homeland Security sector, including the eXaminer 3DX 6000 TSA Certified Explosive Detection System product. Today the product is an integral post-9/11 EDS system for U.S. airports with more than 600 units installed worldwide. Prior to L-3 Communications, Paresi served as corporate director of technology at the C4ISR Group of Lockheed Martin from 1996 to 1997, and served in the same capacity at Loral Corporation from 1994 to 1996. Paresi spent over 16 years prior at Loral Electronic Systems as a senior design engineer, director of marketing and director of programs.
  • Fred E. Saalfeld, Member, Board of Regents and Senior Research Fellow. Dr. Saalfeld retired from ONR in January 2002. In 1993, Dr. Saalfeld was appointed Technical Director of ONR and Deputy Chief of Naval Research, where he was responsible for the Navy and Marine Corps science and technology program, including basic research, exploratory and advanced technology development conducted in federal and private laboratories, academia and industry. In 1998, this position’s title was changed to Executive Director and Technical Director of ONR. Dr. Saalfeld joined the Naval Research laboratory (NRL) in 1962, where he conducted and directed research in physical chemistry. In 1979 and 1980, Dr. Saalfeld was the Chief Scientist and Scientific Director at the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Branch Office, London. In 1982, he was NRL’s Acting Associate Director of Research for Material Sciences and Component Technology, directing more than 900 scientists and a $90M program. Dr. Saalfeld received his B.S. degree cum laude with majors in Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics from Southeast Missouri State University in 1957. Dr. Saalfeld was awarded his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees with a major in Physical Chemistry with minors in Inorganic Chemistry and Mathematics from Iowa State University in 1959 and 1961, and remained one year at Iowa State as an Instructor.
  • Timothy R. Sample, Member, Board of Regents. Timothy R. Sample is the President of the Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA). As such, he is responsible for managing the day-to-day operations of INSA, as well as developing and managing its programs and activities. Mr. Sample joined INSA after a position at General Dynamics Advanced Informations Systems as the Vice President for Strategic Intelligence Strategies and Programs. Along with his experience at General Dynamics, Mr. Sample has 25 years of intelligence and policy experience as both a supplier and user of intelligence. Mr. Sample was the Staff Director of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI), a position that he held since June 2000. Mr. Sample’s experiences prior to Congress have included service as both an intelligence and imagery analyst in the Central Intelligence Agency. He has held senior government positions including Deputy U.S. Negotiator for the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START I) when it was signed in 1991, and the Executive Director of the Central Intelligence Nonproliferation Center. His military background includes service in intelligence units within the U.S. Air Force. Beyond his employment with General Dynamics, he has additional business experience, having worked on information processing and telecommunications technologies at GTE Government Systems, and as the co-founder and first President of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.
  • Howard K. Schue, Ex-officio Member of the Board and Member, Board of Directors Howard Schue is a Partner and Executive Vice President of Technology Strategies and Alliances Corporation specializing in line and marketing management, new business development, and strategic planning in the aerospace/defense and the command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I) industries. Mr. Schue served on the 1993 Defense Science Board Summer Study on Global Surveillance and on the 1994 Summer Study on Information Architecture for the Battlefield. He is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, the National Military Intelligence Association, the American Society of Military Comptrollers, the Air Force Association, the Association of Old Crows, the Reserve Officers Association, the Air War College Alumni Association, the Planetary Society, the West Point Association of Graduates, and the Army Athletic Association.
  • George A. Spix, Member, Board of Regents Mr. George A. Spix is the Chief Architect in the Consumer Platforms Division of the Microsoft Corporation. He also serves on the board of the Digital Audio Video Council (DAVIC), the Information Infrastructure Standards Panel (IISP), the Commerce Department’s Computer Systems’ Security and Privacy Advisory Board (CSSPAB), and a National Research Council (NRC) study focused on trusted computing systems. Before coming to Microsoft, Mr. Spix spent five years as Director of Systems and Software Development at Supercomputer Systems Inc. where he was responsible for the delivery of systems and software products for a next generation supercomputer. Prior to that, he worked for Cray Research Inc., as a Chief Engineer, responsible for systems and software development for the XMP and YMP line of supercomputers.
  • Gene T. Sykes, Member, Board of Regents Gene Sykes is a partner in the investment banking firm of Goldman Sachs and Company. He is responsible for the Far West Region of the Mergers and Acquisitions Department, and is in charge of the firm's mergers and acquisitions efforts with health care, aerospace, and technology companies. He joined the Mergers and Acquisitions Department in New York in 1984 and moved to Los Angeles in 1987. He became a partner in 1992. He is active in fundraising for the Harvard College Fund and the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Mr. Sykes received his M.B.A. from Stanford in 1984 and his B.A. from Harvard in 1980.

Board of Regents Emeritus

  • William L. Bell, Jr., a Member of the Board of Regents of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, is Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary of the CNA Corporation, a non-profit research and analysis corporation in Alexandria, Virginia. He has served in this role since 1983. From 1982-1983, Bell was the Vice President of the Hudson Institute. From 1981-82, he was Minority Counsel for the Foreign Affairs Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives. Prior to his service in Congress, he was a volunteer for the Cambodia Refugee Committee in Bangkok, Thailand. From 1975-78, Bell was the managing director of Faber-Merlin, Ltd. in Hong Kong. Prior to Faber-Merlin, he was managing director for International Nickel for Australia and Indonesia from 1967-75. His first appointment at International Nickel was in New York as Vice President for Public Affairs in 1966. From 1962-65, Bell was managing director of Washington/Pacific International. Upon graduation from law school, Bell worked in the Office of the Attorney General in Seattle, Washington. Bell received his B.A. in Political Science from Whitman College in 1949, and received his L.L.B. and J.D. from Gonzaga University in 1954. Bell lives in Virginia.
  • Ronald Blanck, Member, Board of Regents and Advisor, National Security Health Policy Center. Ronald R. Blanck, D.O., is the President of the University of North Texas Health Science Center in Ft. Worth, TX. Prior to assuming his current position, Dr. Blanck served as Army Surgeon General and commanded the U.S. Army Medical Command. He entered the U.S. Army after his graduation from the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine in 1967. Dr. Blanck then became a medical officer in Vietnam followed by a residency in internal medicine. Dr. Blanck also has served as Assistant Chief of the Department of Medicine at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Assistant Dean of Student Affairs at the Uniformed Services University School of Medicine, and Chief of the Department of Medicine at the Brooke Army Medical Center. He commanded hospitals in Berlin and Frankfort as well as the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. He has held adjunct teaching positions at Georgetown University, The George Washington University, Howard University School of Medicine, the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and the Uniformed Services University. Dr. Blanck is a Master and past Governor of the American College of Physicians and serves on the National Board of Medical Examiners.
  • Bertram S. Brown, , Member, Board of Regents and Advisor, National Security Health Policy Center. Bertram Brown, M.D., M.P.H.board-certified in psychiatry and neurology, is Executive Vice President of Forensic Medical Advisory Service, Inc. A graduate of the Cornell University Medical College and Harvard University School of Public Health, Dr. Brown has held distinguished positions in the medical field. In the 1980s, he was President and Chief Executive Officer, Hahnemann University and the Executive Vice President of U.S. Health Care Inc. In the 1970s, he served as Director of the National Institute of Mental Health and Assistant U.S. Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service. In addition to serving as consultant to the White House and heading National Institute of Health missions to foreign countries, Dr. Brown has served as consultant to such varied groups as the Rand Corporation, American Bar Association, World Health Organization, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies.
  • Beverly B. Byron Beverly Byron was Western Maryland’s Representative to Congress from 1978 to 1992, elected to seven consecutive terms. She served as a senior member of the House Armed Services Committee, and from 1983-1986, Ms. Byron chaired the House Special Panel on Arms Control and Disarmament. In 1987, she was elected Chairman of the Military Personnel and Compensation Subcommittee, becoming the first woman chosen for a prominent leadership role on the Armed Services Committee. Upon leaving Congress in 1993, President Bush and then President Clinton appointed Ms. Byron to the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission. She was also appointed by President Clinton to the Board of Visitors, United States Naval Academy in 1995. She currently chairs that Board. Ms. Byron was a member of the Board of Visitors of the Air Force Academy from 1981 until 1991. In 1994, she founded Byron, Butcher and Associates to provide advice and assistance in Congressional and government affairs.
  • Kirk Clinkenbeard is involved with campaign strategy and finance. Among his current clients is Senator Ted Stevens, Chairman of the Defense Appropriations Subcommittee. Prior to going into private business, Mr. Clinkenbeard served as National Finance Director for Senate Majority Leader Robert Dole’s 1988 Presidential Campaign. Mr. Clinkenbeard has served as Executive Director of Campaign America and has also worked for the Republican National Committee’s finance division in the capacity of Senior Advisor.
  • William Crowell was appointed Deputy Director of the National Security Agency in February 1994, the senior civilian position in the NSA. During his thirty-year tenure at that agency he has held the positions of Deputy Director for Operations and Chief of Staff, in addition to participating on many advisory boards. In the private sector, Mr. Crowell has served as a consultant to the Atlantic Aerospace Electronic Corporation by cultivating a working relationship with the National Reconnaissance Office. Mr. Crowell has received the Meritorious Civilian Service Award twice, the Presidential Rank of Meritorious Executive, and the DoD Distinguished Civilian Service Award.
  • Ronnie G. Flippo Ronnie Flippo is a member of the Board of Regents and a Certified Public Accountant. Mr. Flippo served in the Alabama House and Senate during 1971-1977. Mr. Flippo was then elected to represent the 5th Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1977-1991. He served on the House Ways and Means Committee as well as a being a member of the Science, Space and Technology Committee. On the latter committee, he was the Chairman of the Space, Science and Applications Subcommittee during the development of the Space Shuttle Program. In January 1991, Mr. Flippo formed a management and legislative consulting firm, R.G. Flippo and Associates, Inc., with offices in Washington, D.C. and Alabama.
  • Donald Gleklen is the Chairman and CEO of InteliHealth, Inc., a joint venture between Aetna-US Healthcare and Johns Hopkins University and Health System providing health care information to the consumer through various forms of information channels including the Internet. In addition, Mr. Gleklen is the President of Jocard Financial Services, Inc., a private merchant banking firm. A graduate of the Columbia School of Law and Cornell University, his past positions include Senior Vice President of MEDIQ Incorporated, a publicly owned ASE listed diversified health care services company and Executive Vice President and Senior Lending Officer of Industrial Valley Bank & Trust Company. His community activities include past Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Pennsylvania College of Optometry and a Trustee of the Walnut Street Theater. Mr. Gleklen's corporate activities include the position of Director for several companies including Nutramax Products, Inc., Microleague Multimedia, Inc., Gandalf Technologies, Inc., New West Eyeworks, Inc., and Lason Holdings, Inc.
  • Roger Hayes Roger Hayes is the Director of the International Institute of Communications, a network of over 1,000 companies in seventy countries representing the broadcasting, telecommunications, and new media industry. Its purpose is to stimulate debate and research into the impact of information and communication technology and content on public policy, regulation and society. He is also non-Executive Chairman of Echo Research, a communications research group; an advisor to the Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum, and a member of the Advisory Board of the University of Wales School of Communication.
  • Robert H. Kupperman Robert Kupperman, a Senior Adviser at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), was a leading authority on national security, counterterrorism, and crisis management. Dr. Kupperman was frequently called upon as a consultant by U.S. government agencies, foreign governments, and multinational corporations. Before joining CSIS, he was chief scientist at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, where he led the first interagency studies of foreign and domestic terrorism. Dr. Kupperman also served in the Executive Office of the President, Office of Emergency Preparedness, and as director of the transition team for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. He was the co-author of Strategic Requirements for the Army to the Year 2000 (Lexington Books, 1984) and Final Warning (Doubleday, 1989), among others. He had a Ph.D. in applied mathematics from New York University and has taught at the University of Maryland and New York University.
  • Leonard Roberts, Member, Board of Regents, Chairman and CEO of RadioShack. Mr. Roberts came to RadioShack in 1993, and was named Chairman and CEO in 1999. He has helped to turn RadioShack into the leading consumer electronics specialty retailer by focusing on demystifying technology in every neighborhood in America. Under his leadership, the company has expanded its services and product offerings and joined in partnerships with some of the leading electronics brand names. Prior to joining RadioShack, Mr. Roberts was Chairman and CEO of Shoney's Inc. and President and CEO of Arby's Inc. He is a graduate of the University of Illinois with degrees in marketing and chemistry. He obtained a law degree from De Paul University Law School and was admitted to the Illinois Bar in 1974. Mr. Roberts serves as Chair of the Board of Trustees of the United Way of America and Chair of the Board of Directors of the National Conference for Community and Justice.
  • Harold P. Smith, Jr. Dr. Harold Smith joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley in 1960 after receiving a Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from MIT. In 1966, Dr. Smith was awarded a White House Fellowship and was assigned as a Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense. Since that time, he has served as an advisor to various governmental boards on national security policy, giving particular attention to projects requiring a broad range of technical and managerial skills. Of particular note are his chairmanship of the Vulnerability Task Force of the Defense Science Board (DSB) and a special study for the Secretary of Defense on the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS); i.e. the Smith Report. He retired from the faculty in 1976 in order to pursue a career in managerial consulting and entrepreneurial ventures. The Palmer Smith Corporation, a consulting firm specializing in management of high technology programs, was established and retained by defense contractors. At the request of Dr. William Perry, Dr. Smith accepted an appointment with the Clinton Administration as Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy with responsibilities for reduction and maintenance of the American and NATO arsenals of nuclear weapons, destruction of the chemical weapon stockpile, oversight of the chemical and biological defense programs, management of counter-proliferation acquisition, and management of all treaties related to conventional and/or strategic weapons. Dr. Smith is a Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and has thrice received the highest honor granted by the Department of Defense for public service, the Distinguished Public Service Award (with Silver Palm), as well as the Exceptional Civilian Service Award of the Air Force and the Commendation of the Secretary of the Navy. He has been decorated by the Republic of France as a Commander in the Legion of Honor.
  • Curt Weldon. Curt Weldon was elected to represent the Seventh Congressional District of Pennsylvania for a ninth term in 2002 and served until 2006. Following his most 2002 reelection win, Congressman Weldon became the most senior Republican in the Pennsylvania Delegation. A Member of the House of Representatives since 1987, Weldon held leadership roles on a wide variety of issues, ranging from national security to the environment.
  • Paul Wright is involved in the business of executive search. He specializes in placing senior executive branch civilians, general/flag officers, and congressional staff and members into senior positions in industry. Mr. Wright has, as an adjunct to his primary business, provided financing for new, promising technologies, supported mergers and acquisitions, created loaning arrangements, assisted in the construction of virtual corporations, and supported strategic planning efforts. He is retained by both companies and law firms for these purposes.
  • Anthony Zinni General Zinni currently holds positions on several boards of directors of major U.S. companies. In addition, he has held academic positions that include the Stanley Chair in Ethics at the Virginia Military Institute, the Nimitz Chair at the University of California-Berkeley, the Hofheimer Chair at the Joint Forces Staff College, and the Harriman Professor of Government appointment and membership on the board of the Reves Center for International Studies at the College of William and Mary. He has worked with the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation and the Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue in Geneva. He is also a Distinguished Advisor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.


Corporate Officers

Communications and Government Relations


Finance and Contracts

Human Resources

Security, Protocol

Policy Research Division

Strategy, Planning and Programs Division

Center for Emerging Threats and Opportunities (CETO)

Multimedia Division

Academic Centers

Center for Neurotechnology Studies (CNS)

International Center for Terrorism Studies (ICTS)

National Security Health Policy Center (NSHPC)

National Center for Unconventional Thought (NCUT)

Risk Analysis Center (RAC)

Institute Fellows


The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies
901 N. Stuart Street, Suite 200
Arlington, VA 22203
Phone: 703 525-0770
Fax: 703 525-0299
Website: http://www.potomacinstitute.org


  1. Potomac Institute Board of Directors, accessed 13 November 2007