U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

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U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) enforces federal laws governing border control, customs, trade and immigration. ICE was created in 2003 through a merger of the investigative and interior enforcement elements of the former U.S. Customs Service and the Immigration and Naturalization Service.[1]

ICE has two operational directorates — Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) and Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO), and a third devoted to Management and Administration (M&A).[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Who We Are, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, accessed 2 December 2015.