National Security Agency
- MG Ralph J. Canine 1952-1956
- Lt Gen John A. Samford 1956-1960
- VADM Laurence H. Frost 1960-1962
- Lt Gen Gordon A. Blake 1962-1965
- LTG Marshall S. Carter 1965-1969
- VADM Noel Gayler 1969-1972
- Lt Gen Samuel C. Phillips 1972-1973
- Lt Gen Lew Allen, Jr 1973-1977
- VADM Bobby Ray Inman 1977-1981
- Lt Gen Lincoln D. Faurer 1981-1985
- LTG William E. Odom 1985-1988
- VADM William O. Studeman 1988-1992
- VADM J. Michael McConnell 1992-1996
- Lt Gen Kenneth A. Minihan 1996-1999
- Lt Gen Michael V. Hayden 1999-2005
- LTG Keith B. Alexander 2005-
The NSA and the UK
Relationship with GCHQ
The NSA has long had particularly close links with its British counterpart, GCHQ. In the early 1980s it was suggested that "the relationship between NSA and GCHQ is stronger than any between the NSA and any other American intelligence agency."
Collection in the UK
This relationship does not prevent the NSA spying on the UK. According to Howard Teicher, the former Middle East director of the US National Security Council, the NSA monitored Britain's Al-Yamamah arms deal with Saudi Arabia from its base at Menwith Hill in Yorkshire.
- James Ball, Julian Borger and Glenn Greenwald, US and UK spy agencies defeat privacy and security on the internet, theguardian.com, 5 September 2013.
- James Bamford, The NSA Is Building the Country’s Biggest Spy Center (Watch What You Say), wired.com, 15 March, 2012.
- Duncan Campbell, KEEP CALM and Carry On: PRISM itself is not a big deal But yes, Skype's no longer safe ... and keep an eye on GCHQ, The Register, 11 June 2013.
- Barton Gellman and Laura Poitras, Documents: U.S. mining data from 9 leading Internet firms; companies deny knowledge, Washington Post, 6 June 2013.
- Glenn Greenwald, NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily, The Guardian, 6 June 2013.
- Glenn Greenwald and Ewen MacAskill, NSA taps in to internet giants' systems to mine user data, secret files reveal, The Guardian, 6 June 2013.
- Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill and Laura Poitras, Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations, guardian.co.uk, 9 June 2013.
- Seymour Hersh, Listening In, The New Yorker, 29 May 2006.
- Seymour Hersh, THE ONLINE THREAT, The New Yorker, 1 November 2010.
- Alexander Nazaryan, THE N.S.A.’S CHIEF CHRONICLER, newyorker.com, 10 June 2013.
- Ed Pilkington and Nicholas Watt, NSA surveillance played little role in foiling terror plots, experts say, guardian.co.uk, 12 June 2013.
- Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Fidelius Schmid, Holger Stark and Jonathan Stock, How the NSA Targets Germany and Europe, SpiegelOnline, 1 July 2013.
- Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark, Codename 'Apalachee': How America Spies on Europe and the UN, SpiegelOnline, 26 August 2013.
- Reuters, NSA 'spied on communications' of Brazil and Mexico presidents, theguardian.com, 2 September 2013.
- Tim Shorrock, Watching What You Say, The Nation, 20 March 2006.
- Tim Shorrock, Obama's Crackdown on Whistleblowers, The Nation, 26 March 2013.
- Tim Shorrock, Meet the contractors analyzing your private data, Salon, 10 June 2013.
- John Stokes, US intelligence rivalry flares over British connection, spectator.co.uk, 10 June 2009.
- U.S. now bugging German ministers in place of Merkel - report, Reuters, 23 February 2013.
- Former Directors, National Security Agency, accessed 1 September 2009.
- NSA/CSS Welcomes LTG Keith B. Alexander, USA, National Security Agency, 30 July 2005.
- Jonathan Bloch and Patrick Fitzgerald, British Intelligence and Covert Action, Brandon, 1983, p.64.
- Michael Smith, The Spying Game, Politico's, 2003, p.429.