Hafez al-Assad

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Hafez al-Assad was the effective ruler of Syria from 1970 until his death in 2000.[1]

Hama Massacre

In 1982, he suppressed an uprising in Hama, an event described as the "single bloodiest assault by an Arab ruler against his own people in modern times", with deaths estimated at up to 20,000 people.[2]


  1. Patrick Seale, Hafez al-Assad, The Guardian, 15 June 2000.
  2. Jason Rodrigues, 1982: Syria's President Hafez al-Assad crushes rebellion in Hama, guardian.co.uk, 1 August 2011.