Hard Power describes a nation or political body's ability to use economic incentives or military strength to influence other actors’ behaviours. In this way it is the ability to use the carrots and sticks of economic and military might to make others follow your will.
Hard Power strategies include a wide range of measures geared toward coercing or threatening others into compliance. However, it has been argued that shows of Hard Power are much more commonly geared towards military strength rather than providing economic incentives, overemphasising military intervention, economic sanctions and coercive diplomacy
- Public Diplomacy Wikia, Hard Power: Definition and History of Hard Power
- Jan-Philipp Wagner, The Effectiveness of Soft & Hard Power in Contemporary International Relations: Discussion of the Effectiveness of Hard Power
- Public Diplomacy Wikia, Hard Power, Public Diplomacy Wikia website, accessed 24 March 2015
- Joseph Nye (2004), "Smart Power in the Global Information Age: From Realism to Globalization. London, New York: Routledge
- Ernest Wilson (2008), "Hard Power, Soft Power, Smart Power." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 2008, pp.110-124, Sage Publications: Los Angeles
- Joseph Nye (2011), "The Future of Power", New York: PublicAffairs, p.84