Anders Behring Breivik
Anders Behring Breivik was charged with the killing of 77 people in two attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011, involving a bombing in central Oslo and a massacre of youths at a youth camp on Utøya island. He was convicted in August 2012 and received the maximum sentence of 21 years, though he is unlikely ever to be released from prison.
Manifesto - 2083: A European Declaration of Independence
On the same day as his killing spree, Breivik posted a document entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence online and emailed it to contacts in the counterjihad movement. The title of the document, which was more than 1,500 pages long, was borrowed from an article by one of his main ideological influences, the Norwegian blogger Peder Jensen AKA Fjordman and Breivik used an Anglicized verion of his own name 'Andrew Berwick'. Large parts of the tract were directly copied from authors writing in the Eurabia genre, originally developed by Bat Ye'or.
The year 2083 will be the 400th anniversary of the 1683 Battle of Vienna, viewed in the counterjihad movement as a date on which Europe fought off Muslim invasion. Brevik is though to have used 2083 in the title as he hoped for a second triumph of Christian forces in European which would, in a civil war, drive out Islamic influence.
An analysis by the Centre for American Progress of the number of times Breivik cited various authors and anti-Islam websites in his manifesto revealed the following key influences on his ideas:
- Jihad Watch / Robert Spencer - 116 links
- Fjordman - 114 links
- Gates of Vienna - 86 links
- Bat Ye'or - 59 links
- Daniel Pipes / Middle East Forum - 18 links
- MEMRI (Middle East Media Research Institute) - 16 links
- Pamela Geller / Atlas Shrugs - 12 links
- Center for Security Policy / Frank Gaffney - 7 links
- Foundation for Defense of Democracies - 2 links
- Steven Emerson - 2 links
- Pajamas Media - 2 links
- Obsession (film) - 1 link
- David Horowitz - 1 link
'The Vienna School'
It has been noted that Breivik's contributions on Norwegian webiste Document.no make reference to what he calls 'the Vienna school of thought'. Three of the key writers he places in this 'school' are Robert Spencer, Bat Ye'or, and Peder Jensen AKA Fjordman. The name he gives the set of beliefs may also be a reference to the Gates of Vienna site, or the historical event to which it nods, the 1683 Battle of Vienna, often seen as a historically significant moment in terms of Europe's relationship with the Islamic world.
Video - Knights Templar 2083
Together with his manifesto, before carrying out the killings, Breivik posted a 12 minute video online, which he called 'Knights Templar 2083'. It features text and images gesturing towards the his ideas including how Muslims are waging what he called 'demographic jihad' and how a 'cultural Marxist' elite had forcefully imposed submission to 'political correctness' and acceptance of multiculturalism, in his eyes was tantamount to cultural/national suicide.
The video shows images and text about a number of historical figures associated with Crusades or deemed to have defended 'Western' culture, including Charles Martel, El Cid, Richard the Lionheart, Jacques de Molay and Vlad Tepes. It also made explicit references to what he called 'Islamic colonization', the 'Eurabian union' - a clear reference to Bat Ye'or's Eurabia conspiracy theory - and showed a image representing Islam as a Trojan horse.
A message urges viewer of the video to 'become a justiciar knight in your city' and promotes the idea of a 'conservative revolution' in which Islam will be banished from Europe. The video displays imagery bearing the words Knights Templar Europe (followed by 'Opposes all hate ideologies') and a badge with the letters KT, probably for Knights Templar, alongside the words 'Marxist Hunter', which Breivik appears to be wearing on the arm of a wetsuit he is showing wearing in a photograph at the end of the video in which he is pointing an automatic weapon.
Online activity prior to 22/7 attacks
Gates of Vienna
In response to Suggestions for the future, posted by Fjordman on 29 September 2008, year2183 wrote a comment which read in part:
- Why havent you or any of the other current authors on the Eurabia related issues/Islamisation of Europe (Fjordman, Spencer, Ye`or, Bostom etc.) brought up the “D” word? I assume because it is considered a fascist method in nature, which would undermine your/their work? Why would it undermine their efforts when it is the only rational conclusion, based on the above argument? As far as I know, it’s not illegal in Europe to suggest deportation as a future method when discussing future hypothetical World Orders (correct me if im wrong though, Im not 100% sure, lol)!?
In response to another Fjordman post of 4 October 2008, year 2183 attacked writers he accused of profiteering from the anti-Islam movement:
- I'm writing a book of my own, where one of the chapters are dedicated as a response to so called "revolutionary profiteers". There are around 10 ppl world wide writing about these subjects and the fact that most of them are trademarking everything, preventing distribution of full/partial content is very worrying... How can we, Europeans, rally a response to this devastating demographic warfare if all the intellectuals are doing everything they can to trademark and prevent the "truth" from being distributed?
- I think its therefore absolutely fantastic that you are making it free to distribute/translate. Only the brave individuals that selflessly contribute will be remembered as heroes when we see a conclusion to this conflict in 50-150 years.
Email contact with Fjordman
- Anders Behring Breiviks kommentarer hos Document.no, Document.no (Norwegian), 23 July 2011.
- Doug Saunders, The Political Thinking of Anders Behring Breivik, dougsaunders.net, 23 July 2011.
- Toby Archer, Breivik's Swamp, Foreign Policy, 25 July 2011.
- Tony Paterson and Jerome Taylor, What turned Anders Breivik into Norway's worst nightmare?, Independent, 28 July 2011.
- Mark Townsend and Ian Traynor, Norway attacks: How far right views created Anders Behring Breivik, guardian.co.uk, Saturday 30 July 2011.
- Michael Sells, Part 1, Breivik, Trifkovic, and Radical Serb Ideology, July 2011.
- Robert Lambert, Was Anders Breivik a psychotic spree killer or a calculating terrorist?, RUSI.org, 18 August 2011.
- Bjoern H. Amland, Norway killer was flagged by anti-terror operation, Associated Press, 26 August 2011.
- Simon Baron-Cohen, Anders Breivik: cold and calculating, yes – but insane?, guardian.co.uk, 1 December 2011.
- Tad Tietze, The Breivik diagnosis: ideology wrapped in a straitjacket, abc.net.au, 2 December 2011.
- Tor Bach, Breivik report blasted, Hope Not Hate, 5 December 2011.
- Associated Press, Norway's Breivik To Call Extremists To Testify, NPR, 2 April 2012.
- Peter Beaumont, Anders Behring Breivik: profile of a mass murderer, guardian.co.uk, 23 July 2011.
- Mark Lewis and Sarah Lyal, Norway Mass Killer Gets the Maximum: 21 Years, New York Times, 24 August 2012
- Associated Press, Norway's anti-immigration party likely to enter government this week, theguardian.com, 8 September 2013
- Scott Shane, Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S., New York Times, 24 July 2011, accessed 24 February 2015
- Eli Clifton, CHART: Oslo Terrorist’s Manifesto Cited Many Islamophobic Bloggers And Pundits, ThinkProgress, 25 July 2011, accessed 24 February 2015
- Andrew Brown, Anders Breivik's spider web of hate, The Guardian, 7 September 2011, accessed 24 February 2015
- Norway shootings: Anders Behring Breivik's YouTube video posted hours before killings, The Telegraph, 24 July 2011
- Baron Bodissey, Comments by Breivik at Gates of Vienna, Gates of Vienna, 27 July 2011.
- Suggestions for the Future, Gates of Vienna, 29 September 2008.
- Ten Reasons to Get Rid of the European Union, Gates of Vienna, 4 October 2008.
- Morten Hopperstad, Marianne Vikås, Rolf J. Widerøe, Dennis Ravndal, Hans Henrik Torgersen, Jarle Brenna and Gordon Andersen Breivik's political idol «Fjordman» emerges from anonymity, Verdans Gang, 5 August 2011.