Difference between revisions of "Islamism"

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What caused the reinvention and reinterpretation of the term Islamism (and around the same time, the coining of a new term to go with it - Islamist)?
 
What caused the reinvention and reinterpretation of the term Islamism (and around the same time, the coining of a new term to go with it - Islamist)?
  
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===Bernard Lewis===
  
Four years later Martin Kramer - both student and friend of Lewis - introduced the term '[[Political Islam]]':
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===Martin Kramer===
:Terminology for the phenomena characterized as Political Islam varies among scholars. The first scholar to introduce the term Political Islam was [[Martin Kramer]] in 1980. Some scholars use the term Islamism for the same set of phenomena, or use the two terms interchangeably. Dekmejian 1980 was among the first to place the politicization of Islam in the context of the failures of secular governments, although he uses the terms Islamism and fundamentalism (rather than Political Islam) interchangeably. Dekmejian 1995, still using fundamentalism and Islamism, is an influential treatment of Political Islam as increasingly mainstream and moderate. Some scholars, using descriptive terms such as conservative, progressive, militant, radical, or jihadist, distinguish among ideological strains of Political Islam.<ref>John O. Voll, Tamara Sonn [https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195390155/obo-9780195390155-0063.xml Political Islam] ''Oxford Bibliographies'', LAST REVIEWED: 29 SEPTEMBER 2014, LAST MODIFIED: 14 DECEMBER 2009 DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195390155-0063.</ref>
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[[File:Kramer-cover-1980.jpg|thumb|right|Cover of Martin Kramer's book ''Political Islam'', published in 1980 in the 'Washington Papers' series under the auspices of the [[CSIS]] and the editorship of [[Walter Laqueur]]]]
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Four years later [[Martin Kramer]] - both student and friend of Lewis - introduced the term '[[Political Islam]]':
 +
:Terminology for the phenomena characterized as Political Islam varies among scholars. The first scholar to introduce the term Political Islam was [[Martin Kramer]] in 1980. Some scholars use the term Islamism for the same set of phenomena, or use the two terms interchangeably. [[R. Hrair Dekmejian|Dekmejian]] 1980 was among the first to place the politicization of Islam in the context of the failures of secular governments, although he uses the terms Islamism and fundamentalism (rather than Political Islam) interchangeably. Dekmejian 1995, still using fundamentalism and Islamism, is an influential treatment of Political Islam as increasingly mainstream and moderate. Some scholars, using descriptive terms such as conservative, progressive, militant, radical, or jihadist, distinguish among ideological strains of Political Islam.<ref>John O. Voll, Tamara Sonn [https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195390155/obo-9780195390155-0063.xml Political Islam] ''Oxford Bibliographies'', LAST REVIEWED: 29 SEPTEMBER 2014, LAST MODIFIED: 14 DECEMBER 2009 DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195390155-0063.</ref>
  
 
Kramer's book was published by Sage but in a series called the 'Washington Papers'.  This was edited by [[Walter Laqueur]] the historian, journalist, propagandist and 'terror expert' who was at the time attached to the [[Georgetown University]] think tank the [[Center for Strategic and International Studies]]. The book only used the term 'Islamism' on four occasions, in each case with the prefix 'Pan' as in '[[Pan-Islamism]]'. the idea that Muslims involved in politics might all be part of the same phenomenon seems to have been an intoxicating one.
 
Kramer's book was published by Sage but in a series called the 'Washington Papers'.  This was edited by [[Walter Laqueur]] the historian, journalist, propagandist and 'terror expert' who was at the time attached to the [[Georgetown University]] think tank the [[Center for Strategic and International Studies]]. The book only used the term 'Islamism' on four occasions, in each case with the prefix 'Pan' as in '[[Pan-Islamism]]'. the idea that Muslims involved in politics might all be part of the same phenomenon seems to have been an intoxicating one.
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===Gilles Kepel and Olivier Roy===
  
 
==Resources==
 
==Resources==
 
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*Dekmejian, R. Hrair. “The Anatomy of Islamic Revival: Legitimacy Crisis, Ethnic Conflict and the Search for Islamic Alternatives.” ''The Middle East Journal'' 34, no. 1 (1980): 1–12.
*Andreas Krieg [https://lobelog.com/laying-the-islamist-bogeyman-to-rest/ Laying the ‘Islamist’ bogeyman to rest] ''Lobelog'', October 10, 2019
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*Krieg, Andreas [https://lobelog.com/laying-the-islamist-bogeyman-to-rest/ Laying the ‘Islamist’ bogeyman to rest] ''Lobelog'', October 10, 2019
*Lewis, Bernard. “[https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/the-return-of-islam/ The Return of Islam].” ''Commentary'' 61, no. 1 (1976): 39–49.
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*Lewis, Bernard, “[https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/the-return-of-islam/ The Return of Islam].” ''Commentary'' 61, no. 1 (1976): 39–49.
*Salman Sayyid, (2015). ''A fundamental fear: Eurocentrism and the emergence of Islamism''. Zed Books Ltd.
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*Sayyid, Salman, (2015). ''A fundamental fear: Eurocentrism and the emergence of Islamism''. Zed Books Ltd.
*Albert Scardino [https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/04/usa.religion 1-0 in the propaganda war] The guardian, 4 February 2005.
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*Scardino, Albert, [https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/04/usa.religion 1-0 in the propaganda war] The guardian, 4 February 2005.
*Blake Smith, [https://quillette.com/2018/02/11/say-islamism-stop/ Why We Say ‘Islamism’ and Why We Should Stop], ''Quillette''. 11 February 2018
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*Smith, Blake, [https://quillette.com/2018/02/11/say-islamism-stop/ Why We Say ‘Islamism’ and Why We Should Stop], ''Quillette''. 11 February 2018
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
  
 
<references/>
 
<references/>

Revision as of 21:21, 13 February 2020

Islamism (and the associated Islamist) are terms that are used very widely in contemporary discourse.


History of usage

The term Islamism historically referred to adherents of Islam. It was a term used widely in English from as early as 1800, peaking in books published in English around 1860 and declining to residual use by the turn of the century. Its occurrence only picked up, as the Google Ngram image shows, but this time in a mostly new sense, at the end of the 1980s.

What caused the reinvention and reinterpretation of the term Islamism (and around the same time, the coining of a new term to go with it - Islamist)?

Bernard Lewis

Martin Kramer

Cover of Martin Kramer's book Political Islam, published in 1980 in the 'Washington Papers' series under the auspices of the CSIS and the editorship of Walter Laqueur

Four years later Martin Kramer - both student and friend of Lewis - introduced the term 'Political Islam':

Terminology for the phenomena characterized as Political Islam varies among scholars. The first scholar to introduce the term Political Islam was Martin Kramer in 1980. Some scholars use the term Islamism for the same set of phenomena, or use the two terms interchangeably. Dekmejian 1980 was among the first to place the politicization of Islam in the context of the failures of secular governments, although he uses the terms Islamism and fundamentalism (rather than Political Islam) interchangeably. Dekmejian 1995, still using fundamentalism and Islamism, is an influential treatment of Political Islam as increasingly mainstream and moderate. Some scholars, using descriptive terms such as conservative, progressive, militant, radical, or jihadist, distinguish among ideological strains of Political Islam.[1]

Kramer's book was published by Sage but in a series called the 'Washington Papers'. This was edited by Walter Laqueur the historian, journalist, propagandist and 'terror expert' who was at the time attached to the Georgetown University think tank the Center for Strategic and International Studies. The book only used the term 'Islamism' on four occasions, in each case with the prefix 'Pan' as in 'Pan-Islamism'. the idea that Muslims involved in politics might all be part of the same phenomenon seems to have been an intoxicating one.

Gilles Kepel and Olivier Roy

Resources

Notes

  1. John O. Voll, Tamara Sonn Political Islam Oxford Bibliographies, LAST REVIEWED: 29 SEPTEMBER 2014, LAST MODIFIED: 14 DECEMBER 2009 DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195390155-0063.