False Flag

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False Flag refers to when an operation is conducted by one organisation, and is deliberately made to appear as if it has been conducted by another by means of Deception and Disinformation. False Flag is a type of Black Propaganda whereby the Propaganda is initiated by one source, but claims to be from another[1].

In times of outright Psychological Warfare, False Flag operations have often be carried out by Psychological Operations branches of the military[2]. However, it is important to note that False Flag operations can be carried out both in times of war and peace, by covert government agencies, security services and armies[3].

More recently, the term has been used to refer to acts carried out by "military or security force personnel, which are then blamed on terrorists"[4].


  • Wikipedia, False Flag: Overview of concept and historical examples


  1. Dedman College of Humanities & Sciences, Black Propaganda, Dedman College of Humanities & Social Sciences Department of Physics website, accessed 24 March 2015
  2. Truda Gray and Brian Martin (2007), Backfires: white, black and grey, Journal of Information Warfare, Vol. 7, Issue 1, pp. 7-16, accessed 11 March 2015
  3. Rational Wiki, False Flag Operation, Rational Wiki website, accessed 24 March 2015
  4. Geraint Hughes (2011), The Military's Role in Counterterrorism: Examples and Implications for Liberal Democracies, Letort Paper, Strategic Studies Institute website, accessed 24 March 2015, p.105