Rod Richardson: policing
This article looks at the role of the police around undercover police officer Rod Richardson (alias) who infiltrated groups in London and the environmental movement from 1999 to 2003. It examines the context of his deployment through the National Public Order Intelligence Unit and connections with other undercover police deployed by it. It also discusses his activities in the context of the Metropolitan Police's Public Order Unit, and authorizing officers for the other areas were he was active.
- Rod Richardson (main page)
- Rod Richardson: London targets (MAM, WOMBLES, anti-war & international)
- Rod Richardson: environmental targets (Rettendon, Nottingham & Earth First!)
- 1 Role in undercover policing
- 2 Public Order / Intelligence cross-over
- 3 Authorising officers
- 4 Notes
Role in undercover policing
SDS / NPOIU cross-over
It is now confirmed that Rod worked for the National Public Order Intelligence Unit (NPOIU). The NPOIU was a national version of the Special Demonstration Squad (SDS), a secretive unit within the Metropolitan Police Special Branch (MPSB).
The NPOIU was conceived in 1998 and started to take form in 1999. Though the unit was to be placed under the control of the Association of Chief Police Officers' Terrorism and Allied Matters Committee, for its first two years it was based at the MPSB, developed as an off-shoot of the Animal Rights National Index. As such it came under the operational control of Special Branch commanders Barry Moss and Roger Pearce. Initially, the NPOIU drew heavily on the expertise and personnel of the SDS.
While the SDS undercovers would travel to other parts of the country, London remained a principle focus of their activity. Rod is the first known undercover to reverse this process, first appearing in Essex and having a base in Nottingham, though maintaining a strong connection with London. This indicates that Rod was among the first NPOIU undercovers, rather than SDS. As with other NPOIU officers, Rod's deployment lasted five years, whereas the standard for the SDS appears to have been four years.
As yet, little is known of the immediate command structure around Rod Richardson. However, it is of note that during the DSEi protests of 2001, former SDS head, Bob Lambert was in Scotland Yard's public order control room which was focused on the protests. This has been interpreted as implying Lambert was at that point in a senior position on 'C Desk' which over saw what would be subsequently labelled domestic extremism. In this role he was probably the conduit for intelligence from SDS / NPOIU undercovers Jason Bishop and Rod Richardson, both at DSEi, to the public order police units.
Relationship with other undercovers
Rod's deployment against the WOMBLES started at some point in 2000, before it fully emerged from Reclaim the Streets. Up until that point, the SDS had their own undercover in the latter group, 'Grumpy Jim' Sutton who had been present in the 1999 meetings of the group at the Cock Tavern. In the period May to September 2000 he was extracting himself from his formal deployment. He was later outed as Metropolitan Police Special Branch officer Jim Boyling. The timing indicates that Rod Richardson was a successor, along with Jason Bishop in those particular London-based anarchist and related environmental / anti-war / counter-globalisation circles. It is of note that his deployment also overlaps with that of SDS undercover Simon Wellings who demonstrated similar interests, though focused on Globalise Resistance, and groups aligned with the more traditional left.
Bishop's undercover career mirrors that of Rod considerably. Deployed in 2000, Bishop started with on Reclaim the Streets and remained in anti-capitalist circles though focused on those involved in organising protests against DSEi. He would also be close to those involved in organising of the coaches to the Fairford protest. He exited in 2005. Given his general lack of interest in activities outside of London, he is more likely to have been with the SDS rather than NPOIU, though he and Rod would have worked closely together.
Much of what Rod activities echoed in the deployments of subsequent NPOIU undercovers, particularly Mark Kennedy and to a lesser degree Lynn Watson. It is believed by activists who knew both, that Kennedy was a replacement for Rod in environmental and anarchist circles. Kennedy would also develop links with people known to Rod through the WOMBLES and who went on to be active in the Dissent Network (2005 G8 protests in Scotland), anti-globalisation movements and anti-fascism.
A particular example of this is noted by Earth First! activist 'Harriet' who pointed out that turning up to help with set up for Earth First! Summer Gathering camps was a good way to find out what was happening at the time and learn who were the movers and shakers, and was a tactic Mark Kennedy employed to great effect.
Rod's connections with Lynn Watson are less clear. Her deployment began in 2002 and initially focused on the peace movement in the south of England. As such, her deployment would have overlapped with Rod. In 2004 she moved to Leeds, which would have brought her into the orbit of a number of people who had known Rod through the environmental movement. Quite a few people who knew Rod also knew both Lynn and Mark. Another NPOIU undercover RC was active 2002 to 2006 around national animal rights groups. Though, again, both RC and Rod would have known people in common through Nottingham, the degree of overlap would not have been to the same degree as the other undercovers.
NPOIU Command structure
The NPOIU was founded by David Veness, the Metropolitan Police's Assistant Commissioner for Specialist Operations through-out the period that Rod was deployed undercover. Though NPOIU was conceived as a national unit and set up through the Association of Chief Police Officers' Terrorism and Allied Matters Committee (ACPO TAM), for the first few years of its life it was essentially controlled and managed within the Metropolitan Police Special Branch.
Thus, in the period that Rod was deployed, it fell under the command of MPSB and was over seen by Commander Barry Moss and his deputy Superintendent Trevor Pearce. Pearce, a former SDS undercover himself succeeded Moss in as Head of Special Branch in 1999 and also become Director of Intelligence for the Metropolitan Police, remaining as such for the rest of Rod's deployment. The Operations Commander for MPSB was Colin Black.
Initially, oversight of the NPOIU was done by a steering group, which included members from ACPO TAM but also the Association of Chief Police Officer's Public Order sub-committee. David Veness sat on the steering committee for the former, with the latter being represented initially by Assistant Chief Constable Tim Hollis and then Assistant Chief Constable Paul Blewett.
Public Order / Intelligence cross-over
The anti-capitalist protests of June 18th, 1999 and MayDay 2000, organised by Reclaim the Streets, had caused immense embarrassment to the police. Despite heavy policing and intelligence operations, both events saw widespread disorder. As the high profile successors to Reclaim the Streets, the policing of the WOMBLES needs to be seen in this context, with concerns reaching the highest levels. Not least because senior police were warned that if there was a repeat in 2001, they could lose their jobs.
The police's reactions and their reliance on Special Branch intelligence is detailed in the 2005 autobiography of John Stevens, Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police at the time. He states that the police knew in advance from 'intelligence sources' that Reclaim the Street's 2000 Guerilla Gardening protest was supposed to be a 'cover for all kinds of violent lawlessness'. These 'sources' likely included undercovers Jim Boyling and Jason Bishop, both then in RtS; the latter was arrested driving a van of manure to the action. Notably, Stevens also wrote of the need for 'targeted intervention' - 'of going for the people whom you know from your intelligence-gathering to be top-level agitators'.
Stevens himself would regularly in the press commenting on policing of the WOMBLES as well as Movement Against Monarchy, both groups having been infiltrated by Rod Richardson.
For MayDay 2001, a £1 million police operation was put in place with a promise of 'zero tolerance' towards protestors. Police themselves believed the plan was to seize and ransack a major store on Oxford Street. Likewise, for Mayday 2002, the police operation involved 5,000 officers under AC Michael Todd. While in the press, Commissioner John Stevens painted a picture of protestors seeking a 're-match' as the police had 'won' the previous year with their indiscriminating kettling tactics.
In his autobiography, Stevens again wrote of how police had planned their response for Mayday 2001:
- Once again our pre-event intelligence showed that in London the hard core was hoping to cause widespread havoc. They were clever enough not to have any single organiser with whom we could negotiate coherently: instead there was a collection of elusive ring-leaders, who appealed to a large cross-section of people. Many of the crowd, we knew, would be law-abiding, and genuinely concerned about poverty and debt in the Third World; but to ensure that they created the maximum disruption, the organisers encouraged them to lay on numerous little events, based on the game of Monopoly. 'Go to the Strand and find such-and-such a firm' was a typical order. This was to be 'Monopoly May Day', and the culminating event was to be 'The Sale of the Century', which would take place at four o'clock in Oxford Circus.
- Some of this information had come through the Special Branch, which always passes on useful tips, and helps Gold and Silver build up the best possible picture of what forces they may need on the day. But since the early 1990s we had been developing our own intelligence service, principally by training Public Order Intelligence Officers, and setting up Forward Intelligence Teams, known as FITs, who go to all the big rallies and marches, so that they can recognise the leading trouble-makers. This had proved so successful that from 2000 onwards, before big events, we put in place significant intelligence-gathering operations, with the aim of collecting incriminating evidence about ring-leaders in advance, so that we could arrest them early on the morning of the event, or even a day ahead, before they could cause any more problems during the march itself. Most of the intelligence gatherers were not covert - they went out in uniform, and looked like ordinary officers - but their specific role was to look for the trouble-makers.
In preparation for MayDay 2001, Stevens has the Metropolitan Police draw up detailed plans to deal with disturbances, with Assistant Commissioner Michael Todd and Commander Michael Messenger having responsibility. He also tasked David Veness with stepping up intelligence gathering to discover the 'hard-core' protestor's intentions. This he noted included CID spotters and covert cameras, but would have also relied on Rod Richardson and Simon Wellings, and possibly other undercovers as yet unidentified.
By April, Special Branch was classing the risk of major disorder as 'serious', with people coming intent on theft, arson and criminal damage. There was a particular fear in the Met that there would be 2000-3000 protestors 'running amok' in Oxford Street.
On 30 March 2001: police raided the 'Button Factory' squat being used by the WOMBLES. 200 police from the Metropolitan Police, City of London Police and British Transport Police were involved in 'Operation Dursley', under the command of Det. Ch. Supt. Bob Randall to occupy the empty building. In press at the time, it was described as 'an anarchist training centre' where groups were preparing for the MayDay. The raid was authorised by Stevens himself, who in statements to the press justifying the large police operation, cited intelligence that activists were using it to prepare for MayDay, and were apparently planning to target the police, government buildings and businesses over the first of May and the following days. Rod is known to have visited the squat, which remained under police surveillance after the eviction.
MayDay 2002 saw a similar response from the police, including intelligence operations and a raid similar to the one on the 'Button Factory', this time another WOMBLE connected squat, the 'Radical Dairy' in north London. Again the officer in charge of the raid was DCS Bob Randall. It is the context of this, that Rod's clumsy questioning of a London organiser about plans for that years' MayDay Rose should be seen. (See 'Rose's suspicions' for details).
Given the high profile policing operations around MayDay and given their knowledge of Special Branch intelligence-gathering in relation to it, it is very unlikely that the senior police involved, Stevens, Veness, Todd and Messenger were unaware there was an undercover deep in the WOMBLES, albeit his identity may not have been generally known. With David Veness, Colin Black, and Roger Pearce, given their close involvement in the creation of the NPOIU it reasonable to conclude they would have known considerable more detail about Rod's deployment and would have been involved in the distribution of intelligence arising from his undercover work to other parts of the police.
Mayday police commanders (2000-2002)
Commander Mike Messenger - Gold Commander, when he has Special Branch officers on hand in the Control Room. Silver Commander on the street was Ch. Supt. Chris Allison.
Assistant Commissioner Michael Todd overseeing preparation. Messenger is again Gold Commander on the day, with Ch. Supt. Steven French as Silver Commander. Overseeing policing on the ground are Chris Allison and Alan Webb. Stevens is in the Control Room backing up Messenger's decisions.
Todd and Messenger are again in control of operations.
Messenger, Todd and French were all leading officers in public order policing in the Metropolitan police and oversaw the CO11 - Public Order unit.
Public Order Unit (CO11)
CO11 was the specialist public order unit within the Metropolitan Police for dealing with protest; it also covered other events such as official celebrations and football matches.
Though it lay outside the main MPS intelligence structures, it had its own intelligence gathering unit. Most notably this included the overt Forward Intelligence Teams (though the NPOIU would have their own version of these). Much of its intelligence work crossed over with that of the Special Demonstration Squad and the NPOIU. Thus, there are references to Special Branch officers being in public order control rooms (see Lambert above), but also SDS undercovers identifying people from photographs taken by CO11 FIT (see under Simon Wellings).
CO11 command structure
Assistant Commissioner (1 Area / Central): A J Speed (1999) & Ian Johnston (2000)
↳ Commander, Public Order (Policy): Michael Messenger
↳ Head of Public Order / CO11: Ch. Supt. Steven French, also head of Public Order Training (CO12) & Mounted Branch (CO13).
↳ Commander (Crime): P? Tomkins; in 2000 this is DAC (Crime) Andy Trotter.
- The Commissioner was Paul Condon
- The Deputy Commissioner was John Stevens; his deputy was DAC Roy Clark and his Staff Officer was Supt. Chris Allison.
- Michael Todd was then a Deputy Assistant Commissioner, serving under AC Paul Manning at 2 Area (North West).
The Commissioner becomes John Stevens, and his Deputy Commissioner Ian Blair; both will remain in place for the period in question.
- The Commissioner Staff Officer that year is DCS John Yates.
- The Deputy Commissioner Staff Officer is Supt. Chris Allison while the Deputy to Deputy Commissioner is still Roy Clark but with Hugh Orde his designated replacement.
- Todd continues as DAC at North London, though serving under AC Anderson Dunn.
Following a general reorganisation in 2000, some Public Order responsibilities pass to the control of David Veness's Specialist Operations Division, and sits in the Serious Crime Group under DAC Bill Griffiths.
The Commanders within the Serious Crime Directorate in 2001 are Alan Brown, Michael Fuller, Carol Howlett and Niall Mulvihill. In particular, it is part of SO6 Specialist Crime whose head is Det. Ch. Supt. James Perry and under whom Det. Supt. Bob Randall has charge of it's Public Order unit, which appears to have had intelligence gathering functions. SO6 had been previously Fraud Squad, and while it contained that function still, it had been enlarged to other crimes. Perry & Randall remain in place for 2002.
Ian Johnston has become Assistant Commissioner for Territorial Policing, with DAC Andy Trotter his deputy. Also under AC Johnston is DAC Tarique Ghaffur, who is responsible for Pan London and Westminster matters. Michael Messenger is Commander for Operations, while Tim Godwin is Commander for Crime. DAC Ghaffur has specific responsibility for
- CO11, CO12 & C013, all headed by Ch. Supt. Steve French
- Territorial Support Group, under Ch. Supt. Alan Webb
- In the Specialist Crime Directorate, Griffiths is joined By DAC Carol Howlett. The Commanders are Alan Brown, Brian Moore and John Yates, with the latter having particular reponsibility for SO6.
- Michael Todd replaces Johnson as Assistant Commissioner for Territorial Policing, with DAC Tim Godwin as his Deputy. DAC Andy Trotter has replaced Ghaffur with responsibility for Pan London & Westminister operations. Messenger continues as Commander for Operations. The units under French and Webb are unchanged but answer directly to Todd.
In 2003, Tim Godwin is Assistant Commissioner for Territorial Policing, with Messenger as Commander of Public Order and Pan London Units. Commander for Crime Operations is Robert Quick. The units previously under Steve French (CO11-CO13) are now all under Ch. Supt. Robert Mackie, though Alan Webb continues as head of the Territorial Support Group; both continue to fall under the direct command of the AC for Territorial Policing.
Key officers profiles
- Detective Chief Superintendent Bob Randall was a key officer in the policing of the WOMBLES. He led police raids in 2001 and 2002 (see above). At the time he was part of the SO6 Specialist Crime Group, leading its public order branch In 2001 he was described in press as heading Metropolitan Police's intelligence activities in relation to the MayDay protests.
- Randall had served in covert operations and counter-terrorism, before in 2000 becoming a Superintendent in the Racial and Violent Crimes Task Force under DAC John Grieve, a unit known to have strong Special Branch links. At the RVCTF, Randall worked with Grieve on the review of the controversial deaths of Harold and Jason McGowan in Telford, By 2005 he had retired and been appointed Chief Operating Officer for private intelligence and security firm Inkermans.
- Peter Cole: a Metropolitan police officer from 1977 to 2011, he served with specialist operations and part of the MPS's public order cadre. In May 2001, as a Chief Inspector, he was part of the policing operation at the WOMBLES connected 'Bacon Factory' squat.
Rod was deployed a year before the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RIPA) was enacted. RIPA changed the regime by which undercover deployments were authorised. The degree to which senior officers were aware of such deployments is unclear, though it is a highly probable that officers who occupied the ranks from Head of Special Branch up Assistant Chief Constable (ACC) overseeing CID and Intelligence would have been made aware. Where significant policing operations were taking place, such as at Rettendon, or in Nottingham, officers of Assistant Chief Constable rank and force heads of Intelligence were very likely to have been informed as to his presence and identity.
Chief Constable: D F Stevens
↳ ACC (Crime): J A Broughton
↳ Director of Intelligence: Det. Supt. M J Payne
↳ Dep. Dir. of Intelligence / Head of Special Branch: DCI P Coltman (1999) / DCI W Berhard (2000)
At the time Rettendon itself fell under 'J' Division (Rayleigh), then headed by Supt. P. W. Stanley (position vacant in 2000), Chief Inspectors D R King & S J Bottrill, and DCI G A Bird.
In 1999, the force's Operations Manager was Chief Inspector Ian Learmonth, serving under Operations Division Commander Supt. I R Cotgrove and ACC (Operations) G R Markham. In 2000 he would replace Cotgrove as A/Supt. as Commander of Operations Division. He would later become an Assistant Chief Constable for Strathclyde Police, leading the policing for the 2005 G8 Summit. He was lead on public order for ACPO.
North Wales (2000)
Chief Constable: A Argent (2001)
↳ ACC (Crime): W D Brereton (2001)
↳ Head of CID: DCS P N Ackerley (2001)
↳ Head of CID Support: Det Supt. R A Duffield (2001)
↳ Head of CID (Operations): Det. Supt. W J Williams (2001)
↳ Head of Special Branch: DI R Hughes (2001)
Chief Constable: S M Green (2001-2003)
↳ ACC (Crime): C R Searle (2001-until May 2002); Peter Ditchett (from May 2002)
↳ Head of Crime Investigation: DCS P J Davies & Det Supt. A Parfement (2001-2003)
↳ Head of Special Branch: DI S Lowe (2001-2003)
↳ Director of Intelligence: Det. Supt. M L Ward (2001-2003)
↳ Head of Crime Intelligence: DI G Newton (2001-2003)
↳ ACC (Operations): Sean Price (2001, becoming DCC in 2002); M Welch & Howard Roberts (from May 2002).
(Dates of Rod's activities in Norfolk are uncertain)
Chief Constable: K R Williams"
↳ Assistant Chief Constable: J P Bligh & S P Taylor
↳ Crime Reduction - Operations: Det. Supt. I Sturgess / Det. Supt. M Right
↳ Crime Reduction - Support: Det. Supt. C Grant
↳ Director of Intelligence (2002): Det. Supt. W Goreham
↳ Head of Special Branch: DI D Ward
Chief Constable: D F Coleman
↳ ACC (Operations): R J Wood (2001 - DCC Operations in 2002)
↳ ACC (Support): A J Goodwin
↳ Head of Crime Support: DCS (vacant 2001) & T/D.Supt. R S Baker (2001); DCS K J Wright (2002)
↳ Head of Force Intelligence: DCI J D Russell (2001-2002) & DI H S Veigas (2001) / T/DI G Record (2002);
↳ Head of Special Branch: T/DI A R Smith (2001); DI R S Swindell (2002)
(Dates of Rod's activities in Cambridgeshire are uncertain)
Chief Constable: Ben Gunn - Chair of ACPO TAM 1999-2002.
↳ 'Deputy Chief Constable: T Lloyd
↳ 'Assistant Chief Constable: K Hoddy (2003: also had as A/ACC DCS D Roberts)
↳ Head of Crime Dept.: Det. Supt. C T Stevenson (2001) / Det. Supt. W Haddow (2002)
↳ Director of Intelligence (2002): Det. Supt. J Eales
↳ Head of Special Branch: A/Det. Insp. C Lewis
↳ Head of Force Intelligence Bureau: Det. Insp. P Phillipson
Devon & Cornwall (2002)
Chief Constable: Sir John Evans (2002) / Maria Wallis (2003)
↳ Deputy Chief Constable: P Burton (2002)
↳ ACC Operations: N G Arnold (2002) - A/DCC in 2003;
↳ Head of Intelligence & Specialist Services Branch: Det Supt. A C Pierce (2002)
↳ Head of Crime Intelligence: DCI A G Lucock (2002)
↳ Force Intelligence Centre: DI S Blackford (2002)
↳ Head of Special Branch: DCI C I H Leitch (2002)
Chief Constable: Maria Wallis (2003)
↳ A/ACC (Operations): S J Pearce (2003)
↳ Head of Specialist Crime Services & Standards: D Supt. A C Pierce (2003)
↳ Head of Special Branch: DCI C I H Leitch (2003)
↳ Head of Intelligence & Logistics Branch / Director of Intelligence: Det. Supt. R H Spencer (2003)
↳ Head of Crime Intelligence: DCI A G Lucock (2003)
↳ Force Intelligence Centre: DI S Blackford (2003)
South Yorkshire (2002)
Chief Constable: M I I Hedges
↳ ACC (Community Safety): I Daines (2002); S Chamberlain (2003)
↳ ACC (Support Services): D Brand (2002); I Daines (2003)
↳ Head of CID: DCS Judson (2002). By 2003 this became Specialist Crime Services, with Hudson as Force Crime Manager CHECK SURNAME
↳ Central Support / Central CID: Det. Supt R Vary (2002)
↳ Central Support: DCI B Laughton (2002)
↳ Head of Surveillance Unit: DI T Heald (2002)
↳ Head of Crime Intelligence: DI R Venables (2002)
↳ Director of Intelligence: Det Supt. S Talbot (2002)
↳ Commericial Branch: DCI E Brentall (2002)
↳ S.O.C.A. Unit: DI P Carr (2002)
↳ Head of Specialist Crime Services: DCS Judson
↳ Operational Support: D.Supt. P Broadhead & DCI M Mason (policy)
↳ Serious & Organised Crime: DCI M Whitehouse, DI A Nolan
↳ Surveillance Unit: DI Heald
↳ Director of Intelligence: D. Supt. N Kinsela
↳ Head of Force Intelligence Bureau: DI Venables
↳ Dedicated Source Handling Unit: DI Higham
↳ Commerical Branch: DCI L Sheeratt & DI C Barnes
Chief Constable: Tim Brain (2002-2003)
↳ ACC: M Baker & Craig Mackey (2002-2003)
↳ Head of CID / Crime Support: DCS C J Merrick (2002); DCS J Jeynes (2003)
↳ Head of Operations: Det Supt. J Jeynes (2002); T/D.Supt. G Thomas (2003)
↳ Head of Intelligence: Det. Supt. J Henry (2002-2003)
↳ Head of Force Intelligence Unit: : DI P Edwards (2002-2003)
↳ Head of Special Branch: DI D P Griffiths (2002-2003)
At the time Ch. Supt. Kevin Lambert lead the operation against the Fairford Coaches he was head of policing for the Cheltenham Divison.
- Undercover Policing Public Inquiry, No anonymity sought for undercover identity ‘Rod Richardson’, UCPI.org.uk (press release), 15 December 2016 (accessed 7 January 2017).
- Council Committee on Terrorism and Allied Matters, NPOIU Strategic Overview - Update, Association of Chief Police Officers, 22 January 2000, published at SpecialBranchFiles.UK.
- A review of national police units which provide intelligence on criminality associated with protest, HM Inspectorate of Constabulary, 2 February 2012 (accessed 20 July 2016).
- Undercover Research Group: preliminary analysis of deployment lengths of known undercovers.
- Bob Lambert, Reflections on Counter-Terrorism Partnerships in Britain, Arches (periodical of the Cordoba Foundation), Issue 5, Jan-Feb 2007. See also Bristle Chris, Looking for Bob Lambert in the late 1990s, Undercover Research Group, 30 April 2015 (accessed 30 January 2017).
- Bristle Kris, Mayday! Mayday! Help needed to fill in the blanks on spycop Bob Lambert’s timeline…, Bristle.wordpress.com, 1 May 2015 (accessed 10 January 2017). See also Robet Lambert, Reflection on Counter-Terrorism Partnerships in Britain, Arches (Cordoba Foundation periodical), Issue 5, Jan-Feb 2007 (accessed 10 January 2017).
- Paul Lewis & Rob Evans, Undercover: The True Story of Britain's Secret Police, Faber & Faber, 2013.
- Jason Bishop – new allegations of undercover policing of protest, Network for Police Monitoring, 25 July 2013 (accessed 21 July 2016).
- Information on "Rod Richardson", suspected undercover cop, Indymedia UK, 6 February 2013 (accessed 24 December 2015).
- Undercover Research Group: various personal communications.
- Undercover Research Group: interview with Harriet (alias), an Earth First! activist who worked alongside Rod Richardson, 6 December 2015.
- Undercover Research Group: Norfolk meeting with a group of activists who knew Rod Richardson, May 2016.
- NPOIU Formation - files overview, SpecialBranchFiles.uk, 2016 (accessed 19 January 2017).
- A review of national police units which provide intelligence on criminality associated with protest, HM Inspectorate of Constabulary, 2012.
- Council Committee on Terrorism and Allied Matters, Minutes of Meeting 14 October 1999, Association of Chief Police Officers (available via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).
- Council Committee on Terrorism and Allied Matters, NPOIU Strategic Overview - Update 20 January 2000, Association of Chief Police Officers (available via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).
- Frank Kane, Arthur Neslen, Martin Bright & Paul Farrelly, Ministers will sack police chiefs if they fail to stop May Day anarchy, The Observer, 8 April 2001 (accessed via Nexis).
- John Stevens, Not for the Fainted-hearted: My Life Fighting Crime, paperback edition, Phoenix, 2006. See Chapter 25, 'Law and Order' which deals explicitly with the Mayday protests and the intelligence response.
- Anarchists to target the Queen: Britain's top police chief warns of a new threat..., Daily Mail, 10 May 2000 (accessed via Nexis).
- David Bamber, Police mobilise for MayDay mayhem, 30 April 2016 (accessed 20 July 2016).
- Thomas Harding & John Steele, London braced for MayDay mayhem, The Telegraph, 1 May 2001 (accessed 20 July 2016).
- Jamie Wilson, 5,000 police on duty to fend off MayDay chaos, The Guardian, 1 May 2002 (accessed 21 July 2016).
- Nick Hopkins, [Hard core of protesters looking for MayDay 'rematch', Met suggests], The Guardian, 19 April 2002 (accessed 25 January 2017).
- David Bamber, Anarchist base destroyed in dawn raid Police thwart plan to train 500 rioters for violent confrontation on MayDay, The Telegraph, 1 April 2001 (accessed via Nexis).
- Police raid 'anarchist' base, BBC News Online, 1 April 2001 (accessed 20 July 2016).
- Undercover Research Group: interview with Alex, London-based activist who knew Rod Richardson, 18 April 2016.
- High noon at the vegan cafe, New Statesman, 16 April 2001 (accessed 20 July 2016).
- Russell Miller, WOMBLES 7: British State 2 - Beating the Spooks in Court, A-Infos News Service, 2003.
- Undercover Research Group: miscellaneous contemporary press reports.
- Police and Constabulary Almanac 2001, R Hazell & Co.
- S06 had been previously been Fraud Squad, hence why Randall refered to himself as serving with Fraud Squad during his 2002 raid on the 'Radical Dairy' squat. See Russell Miller, WOMBLES 7: British State 2 - Beating the Spooks in Court, A-Infos News Service, 2003.
- David Bamber, Police mobilise for May Day mayhem, Sunday Telegraph, 29 April 2001 (accessed via Nexis).
- Top Met officer reviews hangings case, BBC News Online, 6 March 2000 (accessed 20 July 2016).
- Martin Rowe, Lunch With Inkerman, Professional Security Magazine (Online), 29 November 2005 (accessed 20 July 2016).
- Peter Coles, Profile, LinkedIn.com, undated (accessed 25 January 2017).
- POLITICS: Protests: May Day Demonstrations in London, ITNsource.com, 1 May 2001 (accessed 25 January 2017).
- Kent's chief constable honoured by queen, Welwyn Hatfield Times, 16 June 2012 (accessed 27 January 2017).
- Ian Learmonth, The riots one year on, 7 Aug 2012, National Police Chiefs Council, 2012 (accessed 27 January 2017).