Waxman-Markey Bill

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The American Clean Energy and Security Act, ACES, H.R. 2454, previously known as the Waxman-Markey climate and energy bill, was passed by the US House of Representatives on 26 June 2009.

The bill's aim is stated as being:

To create clean energy jobs, achieve energy independence, reduce global warming pollution and transition to a clean energy economy.[1]

The bill comprises five titles:

Title I – Clean Energy: would set standards for conventional and renewable energy technologies and provide funds to support the development of clean energy projects and technologies.

Title II – Energy Efficiency: would mandate new energy efficiency standards for appliances, buildings, transport and industry and provide funds to support energy efficiency projects and technologies.

Title III – Reducing Global Warming Pollution: would create a national cap-and-trade scheme that would reduce GHG emissions from major sources by 17 percent by 2020 and 83 percent by 2050 relative to 2005 levels.

Title IV – Transitioning to a Clean Energy Economy: would provide financial assistance to those industries and persons affected by the Bill’s provisions and protect consumers from increases in energy prices.

Title V – Offsets from Domestic Forestry & Agriculture: would provide opportunities for domestic emissions from the forestry and agricultural sectors.[2]

American Petroleum Institute targets bill

In 2009 a memo from Jack Gerard, President and CEO of the American Petroleum Institute (API), was leaked to Greenpeace. The memo revealed that the API and its membership were targeting the Waxman-Markey bill and other legislation like it in a PR campaign aimed at persuading the public that such measures would mean high petrol prices and job losses. The memo revealed that in the eyes of API at least, the PR campaign was a success.


  1. H.R. 2454: American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, govtrack.us website, accessed 7 Nov 2009
  2. The Waxman-Markey Bill at a Glance, Think Carbon website, accessed 7 Nov 2009