The Royal Society
The Royal Society is a self-governing Fellowship of many of the world’s most distinguished scientists drawn from all areas of science, engineering, and medicine. The Society is the 'national Academy of science in the UK.'  The society was founded in 1660. 
The Society's fundamental purpose is to recognise, promote, and support excellence in science and to encourage the development and use of science for the benefit of humanity. 
The backbone of the Society is said to be its Fellowship, made up of the most eminent scientists, engineers and technologists from the UK and the Commonwealth. Fellows and Foreign Members are elected to the Society for life through a peer review process on the basis of excellence in science.