Dear Prince, you are extremely well advised to listen closely to all of the signals, however faint, of impending bad news. They are your only first line of defense. You need to constantly scan your kingdom for signals of bad things that are about to happen […] This is the only chance you have to gain advantage. Therefore, set up throughout your kingdom ears and eyes that can pick up the weakest signals before they are apparent to your enemies.
—Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), Italian philosopher who is considered to be the founder of modern political science
Sandra Macleod is advisor and contributing editor for Editorial Intelligence. She is chief executive of Echo Research Limited and a board member of Echo Research Inc. She used the Machiavelli quote above in a presentation she gave at the conference of the International Public Relations Association Gulf Chapter in Kuwait. In the context of her discussion of 'stakeholder research' Machiavelli is described as an 'expert'.
Macleod's profile for Echo states:
- Sandra has more than twenty years' experience in communications and reputation analysis and evaluation. Sandra's International career spans Canada, France and the UK, including PA Management Consultants. Author and lecturer across five continents, Sandra has contributed to books on professional accountability and corporate social responsibility. Sandra is the first international Trustee of the Institute for Public Relations in the USA, a Companion of the Chartered Institute of Management, and on the Board of the Finance and Performance Review Committee of the International Business Leaders Forum (IBLF)". She is also a Freeman of the City of London Guild of Public Relations.
She has been in 'communications and reputation analysis and evaluation' for 20 years. Her European PR consultancy, Hayes Macleod, won the Best New Agency of the Year Award in 1989. One regular activity of the PR industry are 'awards' ceremonies. Hayes Macleod was a short lived venture with her fellow Echo Research Non Executive Director, Roger Hayes. Hayes is the Executive Director of the International Institute of Communications (founded in 1968 with the support of the Ford Foundation) whose career includes "senior positions with the British Nuclear Industry Forum, Ford of Europe, Thorn EMI, PA Consulting and Burson-Marsteller"  and Pinnacle PR.
According to its website, Echo Research is
- the premier global specialist in reputation analysis and stakeholder research. It enables clients to measure how they are viewed, accurately and impartially, and to protect their brands and reputation.
Sanda Macleod was partner to Roger Hayes at their corporate communications firm Hayes Macleod which was set up in 1988. Hayes Macleod was later sold to Citigate in 1991. Roger Hayes is also a Non Executive Director with Echo.
Macleod's profile as a Trustee of the Institute for Public Relations adds that she is also a "Fellow of the Institute of Public Relations (UK), a Member of the Market Research Society, an Editorial Advisor to the Corporate Communications Journal, and Member of the Advisory Committee to Stirling University (Department of Film and Media Studies)".
Her fellow director at Echo is Roger Hayes, the Executive Director of the International Institute of Communications (founded in 1968 with the support of the Ford Foundation whose career includes "senior positions with the British Nuclear Industry Forum, Ford of Europe, Thorn EMI, PA Management Consultants and Burson-Marsteller..." and Pinnacle PR 
Conferences and Events
Macleod was a member of the International Public Relations Association Summit Advisory Board in 2006. Macleod has contributed to two 'Gold Papers' for the International Public Relations Association: “Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Public Relations” and “Public Relations Evaluation: Professional Accountability”.
Contact, References and Resources
- Niccolo Machiavelli, quoted by Sandra Macleod in Measurement & PR … the way forward presentation to the IPRA Gulf Chapter, 2-3 December 2006 (Last viewed 11 January 2008)
- "Advisors and Contributing Editors" Editorial Intelligence. Accessed 9th october 2007
- Wroxton Program, 2005
- Wroxton Program, 2005
- see the About Us section of the IIC website at http://www.iicom.org/index.htm (Last viewed 1 March 2007)
- from Echo Research website at http://www.echoresearch.com/en/directors/ (Last viewed 1 March 2007)
- from Pinnacle PR website at http://www.pinnaclepr.co.uk/team.php (Last viewed 1 March 2007); APCO Roger Hayes
- Echo Research Home Page Accessed 9th october 2007
- Carol Leonard (1991) "Travelling Man" The Times. 12th December 1991
- "Global Directors" Echo Research. Accessed 9th october 2007
- "Sandra Macleod" Institute for Public Relations 2007. Accessed 9th october 2007
- Sandra Macleod, "Fresh Air of Outside World Helps Leaders Achieve Clarity on Changes, Echo CEO Writes in Management Today" Echo Research. 5th December 2005. Accessed 9th October 2007
- "IRPA Summit Purpose" International Public Relations. 2006. Accessed 9th October 2007
- "Echo CEO among top 100 most influential in UK, says PR Week/UK" Echo Research. 13th april 2006. Accessed 9th October 2007